Han Liu


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Aligning Offline Metrics and Human Judgments of Value for Code Generation Models
Victor Dibia | Adam Fourney | Gagan Bansal | Forough Poursabzi-Sangdeh | Han Liu | Saleema Amershi
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Large language models have demonstrated great potential to assist programmers in generating code. For such human-AI pair programming scenarios, we empirically demonstrate that while generated code are most often evaluated in terms of their functional correctness (i.e., whether generations pass available unit tests), correctness does not fully capture (e.g., may underestimate) the productivity gains these models may provide. Through a user study with N=49 experienced programmers, we show that while correctness captures high-value generations, programmers still rate code that fails unit tests as valuable if it reduces the overall effort needed to complete a coding task. Finally, we propose a hybrid metric that combines functional correctness and syntactic similarity and show that it achieves a 14% stronger correlation with value and can therefore better represent real-world gains when evaluating and comparing models.


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Trade the Event: Corporate Events Detection for News-Based Event-Driven Trading
Zhihan Zhou | Liqian Ma | Han Liu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

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An Explicit-Joint and Supervised-Contrastive Learning Framework for Few-Shot Intent Classification and Slot Filling
Han Liu | Feng Zhang | Xiaotong Zhang | Siyang Zhao | Xianchao Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Intent classification (IC) and slot filling (SF) are critical building blocks in task-oriented dialogue systems. These two tasks are closely-related and can flourish each other. Since only a few utterances can be utilized for identifying fast-emerging new intents and slots, data scarcity issue often occurs when implementing IC and SF. However, few IC/SF models perform well when the number of training samples per class is quite small. In this paper, we propose a novel explicit-joint and supervised-contrastive learning framework for few-shot intent classification and slot filling. Its highlights are as follows. (i) The model extracts intent and slot representations via bidirectional interactions, and extends prototypical network to achieve explicit-joint learning, which guarantees that IC and SF tasks can mutually reinforce each other. (ii) The model integrates with supervised contrastive learning, which ensures that samples from same class are pulled together and samples from different classes are pushed apart. In addition, the model follows a not common but practical way to construct the episode, which gets rid of the traditional setting with fixed way and shot, and allows for unbalanced datasets. Extensive experiments on three public datasets show that our model can achieve promising performance.

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Morphology Matters: A Multilingual Language Modeling Analysis
Hyunji Hayley Park | Katherine J. Zhang | Coleman Haley | Kenneth Steimel | Han Liu | Lane Schwartz
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 9

Prior studies in multilingual language modeling (e.g., Cotterell et al., 2018; Mielke et al., 2019) disagree on whether or not inflectional morphology makes languages harder to model. We attempt to resolve the disagreement and extend those studies. We compile a larger corpus of 145 Bible translations in 92 languages and a larger number of typological features.1 We fill in missing typological data for several languages and consider corpus-based measures of morphological complexity in addition to expert-produced typological features. We find that several morphological measures are significantly associated with higher surprisal when LSTM models are trained with BPE-segmented data. We also investigate linguistically motivated subword segmentation strategies like Morfessor and Finite-State Transducers (FSTs) and find that these segmentation strategies yield better performance and reduce the impact of a language’s morphology on language modeling.


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Scmhl5 at TRAC-2 Shared Task on Aggression Identification: Bert Based Ensemble Learning Approach
Han Liu | Pete Burnap | Wafa Alorainy | Matthew Williams
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Trolling, Aggression and Cyberbullying

This paper presents a system developed during our participation (team name: scmhl5) in the TRAC-2 Shared Task on aggression identification. In particular, we participated in English Sub-task A on three-class classification (‘Overtly Aggressive’, ‘Covertly Aggressive’ and ‘Non-aggressive’) and English Sub-task B on binary classification for Misogynistic Aggression (‘gendered’ or ‘non-gendered’). For both sub-tasks, our method involves using the pre-trained Bert model for extracting the text of each instance into a 768-dimensional vector of embeddings, and then training an ensemble of classifiers on the embedding features. Our method obtained accuracy of 0.703 and weighted F-measure of 0.664 for Sub-task A, whereas for Sub-task B the accuracy was 0.869 and weighted F-measure was 0.851. In terms of the rankings, the weighted F-measure obtained using our method for Sub-task A is ranked in the 10th out of 16 teams, whereas for Sub-task B the weighted F-measure is ranked in the 8th out of 15 teams.

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Unknown Intent Detection Using Gaussian Mixture Model with an Application to Zero-shot Intent Classification
Guangfeng Yan | Lu Fan | Qimai Li | Han Liu | Xiaotong Zhang | Xiao-Ming Wu | Albert Y.S. Lam
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

User intent classification plays a vital role in dialogue systems. Since user intent may frequently change over time in many realistic scenarios, unknown (new) intent detection has become an essential problem, where the study has just begun. This paper proposes a semantic-enhanced Gaussian mixture model (SEG) for unknown intent detection. In particular, we model utterance embeddings with a Gaussian mixture distribution and inject dynamic class semantic information into Gaussian means, which enables learning more class-concentrated embeddings that help to facilitate downstream outlier detection. Coupled with a density-based outlier detection algorithm, SEG achieves competitive results on three real task-oriented dialogue datasets in two languages for unknown intent detection. On top of that, we propose to integrate SEG as an unknown intent identifier into existing generalized zero-shot intent classification models to improve their performance. A case study on a state-of-the-art method, ReCapsNet, shows that SEG can push the classification performance to a significantly higher level.

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Few-shot Slot Tagging with Collapsed Dependency Transfer and Label-enhanced Task-adaptive Projection Network
Yutai Hou | Wanxiang Che | Yongkui Lai | Zhihan Zhou | Yijia Liu | Han Liu | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

In this paper, we explore the slot tagging with only a few labeled support sentences (a.k.a. few-shot). Few-shot slot tagging faces a unique challenge compared to the other fewshot classification problems as it calls for modeling the dependencies between labels. But it is hard to apply previously learned label dependencies to an unseen domain, due to the discrepancy of label sets. To tackle this, we introduce a collapsed dependency transfer mechanism into the conditional random field (CRF) to transfer abstract label dependency patterns as transition scores. In the few-shot setting, the emission score of CRF can be calculated as a word’s similarity to the representation of each label. To calculate such similarity, we propose a Label-enhanced Task-Adaptive Projection Network (L-TapNet) based on the state-of-the-art few-shot classification model – TapNet, by leveraging label name semantics in representing labels. Experimental results show that our model significantly outperforms the strongest few-shot learning baseline by 14.64 F1 scores in the one-shot setting.


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Reconstructing Capsule Networks for Zero-shot Intent Classification
Han Liu | Xiaotong Zhang | Lu Fan | Xuandi Fu | Qimai Li | Xiao-Ming Wu | Albert Y.S. Lam
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Intent classification is an important building block of dialogue systems. With the burgeoning of conversational AI, existing systems are not capable of handling numerous fast-emerging intents, which motivates zero-shot intent classification. Nevertheless, research on this problem is still in the incipient stage and few methods are available. A recently proposed zero-shot intent classification method, IntentCapsNet, has been shown to achieve state-of-the-art performance. However, it has two unaddressed limitations: (1) it cannot deal with polysemy when extracting semantic capsules; (2) it hardly recognizes the utterances of unseen intents in the generalized zero-shot intent classification setting. To overcome these limitations, we propose to reconstruct capsule networks for zero-shot intent classification. First, we introduce a dimensional attention mechanism to fight against polysemy. Second, we reconstruct the transformation matrices for unseen intents by utilizing abundant latent information of the labeled utterances, which significantly improves the model generalization ability. Experimental results on two task-oriented dialogue datasets in different languages show that our proposed method outperforms IntentCapsNet and other strong baselines.


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CANE: Context-Aware Network Embedding for Relation Modeling
Cunchao Tu | Han Liu | Zhiyuan Liu | Maosong Sun
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Network embedding (NE) is playing a critical role in network analysis, due to its ability to represent vertices with efficient low-dimensional embedding vectors. However, existing NE models aim to learn a fixed context-free embedding for each vertex and neglect the diverse roles when interacting with other vertices. In this paper, we assume that one vertex usually shows different aspects when interacting with different neighbor vertices, and should own different embeddings respectively. Therefore, we present Context-Aware Network Embedding (CANE), a novel NE model to address this issue. CANE learns context-aware embeddings for vertices with mutual attention mechanism and is expected to model the semantic relationships between vertices more precisely. In experiments, we compare our model with existing NE models on three real-world datasets. Experimental results show that CANE achieves significant improvement than state-of-the-art methods on link prediction and comparable performance on vertex classification. The source code and datasets can be obtained from https://github.com/thunlp/CANE.