Hang Zhang


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Noisy Pair Corrector for Dense Retrieval
Hang Zhang | Yeyun Gong | Xingwei He | Dayiheng Liu | Daya Guo | Jiancheng Lv | Jian Guo
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Most dense retrieval models contain an implicit assumption: the training query-document pairs are exactly matched. Since it is expensive to annotate the corpus manually, training pairs in real-world applications are usually collected automatically, which inevitably introduces mismatched-pair noise. In this paper, we explore an interesting and challenging problem in dense retrieval, how to train an effective model with mismatched-pair noise. To solve this problem, we propose a novel approach called Noisy Pair Corrector (NPC), which consists of a detection module and a correction module. The detection module estimates noise pairs by calculating the perplexity between annotated positive and easy negative documents. The correction module utilizes an exponential moving average (EMA) model to provide a soft supervised signal, aiding in mitigating the effects of noise. We conduct experiments on text-retrieval benchmarks Natural Question and TriviaQA, code-search benchmarks StaQC and SO-DS. Experimental results show that NPC achieves excellent performance in handling both synthetic and realistic noise.

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CAPSTONE: Curriculum Sampling for Dense Retrieval with Document Expansion
Xingwei He | Yeyun Gong | A-Long Jin | Hang Zhang | Anlei Dong | Jian Jiao | Siu Yiu | Nan Duan
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

The dual-encoder has become the de facto architecture for dense retrieval. Typically, it computes the latent representations of the query and document independently, thus failing to fully capture the interactions between the query and document. To alleviate this, recent research has focused on obtaining query-informed document representations. During training, it expands the document with a real query, but during inference, it replaces the real query with a generated one. This inconsistency between training and inference causes the dense retrieval model to prioritize query information while disregarding the document when computing the document representation. Consequently, it performs even worse than the vanilla dense retrieval model because its performance heavily relies on the relevance between the generated queries and the real query. In this paper, we propose a curriculum sampling strategy that utilizes pseudo queries during training and progressively enhances the relevance between the generated query and the real query. By doing so, the retrieval model learns to extend its attention from the document alone to both the document and query, resulting in high-quality query-informed document representations. Experimental results on both in-domain and out-of-domain datasets demonstrate that our approach outperforms previous dense retrieval models.

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Video-LLaMA: An Instruction-tuned Audio-Visual Language Model for Video Understanding
Hang Zhang | Xin Li | Lidong Bing
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

We present Video-LLaMA, a multi-modal framework that empowers Large Language Models (LLMs) with the capability of understanding both visual and auditory content in the video. Video-LLaMA bootstraps cross-modal training from the frozen pre-trained visual & audio encoders and the frozen LLMs. Unlike previous works that complement LLMs to process the visual or audio signals only, Video-LLaMA enables video comprehension by tackling two challenges: (1) capturing the temporal changes in visual scenes, (2) integrating audio-visual signals. To counter the first challenge, we propose a Video Q-former to assemble a pre-trained image encoder into our video encoder and introduce a video-to-text generation task to learn video-language correspondence. For the second challenge, we leverage ImageBind, a universal embedding model aligning multiple modalities, as the pre-trained audio encoder and introduce an Audio Q-former on top of ImageBind to learn reasonable auditory query embeddings for the LLM module. To align the output of both visual & audio encoders with LLM’s embedding space, we first train Video-LLaMA on massive video/image-caption pairs and then tune our model with visual-instruction datasets of moderate amount but higher quality. We found Video-LLaMA shows the ability to perceive and comprehend video content and generate meaningful responses grounded in the visual and auditory information presented in the videos.


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Efficient Two-Stage Progressive Quantization of BERT
Charles Le | Arash Ardakani | Amir Ardakani | Hang Zhang | Yuyan Chen | James Clark | Brett Meyer | Warren Gross
Proceedings of The Third Workshop on Simple and Efficient Natural Language Processing (SustaiNLP)

The success of large BERT models has raised the demand for model compression methods to reduce model size and computational cost. Quantization can reduce the model size and inference latency, making inference more efficient, without changing its stucture, but it comes at the cost of performance degradation. Due to the complex loss landscape of ternarized/binarized BERT, we present an efficient two-stage progressive quantization method in which we fine tune the model with quantized weights and progressively lower its bits, and then we fine tune the model with quantized weights and activations. At the same time, we strategically choose which bitwidth to fine-tune on and to initialize from, and which bitwidth to fine-tune under augmented data to outperform the existing BERT binarization methods without adding an extra module, compressing the binary model 18% more than previous binarization methods or compressing BERT by 31x w.r.t. to the full-precision model. Our method without data augmentation can outperform existing BERT ternarization methods.

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Evaluating Machine Translation in Cross-lingual E-Commerce Search
Hang Zhang | Liling Tan | Amita Misra
Proceedings of the 15th biennial conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas (Volume 1: Research Track)

Multilingual query localization is integral to modern e-commerce. While machine translation is widely used to translate e-commerce queries, evaluation of query translation in the context of the down-stream search task is overlooked. This study proposes a search ranking-based evaluation framework with an edit-distance based search metric to evaluate machine translation impact on cross-lingual information retrieval for e-commerce search query translation, The framework demonstrate evaluation of machine translation for e-commerce search at scale and the proposed metric is strongly associated with traditional machine translation and traditional search relevance-based metrics.

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Metric-guided Distillation: Distilling Knowledge from the Metric to Ranker and Retriever for Generative Commonsense Reasoning
Xingwei He | Yeyun Gong | A-Long Jin | Weizhen Qi | Hang Zhang | Jian Jiao | Bartuer Zhou | Biao Cheng | Sm Yiu | Nan Duan
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Commonsense generation aims to generate a realistic sentence describing a daily scene under the given concepts, which is very challenging, since it requires models to have relational reasoning and compositional generalization capabilities. Previous work focuses on retrieving prototype sentences for the provided concepts to assist generation. They first use a sparse retriever to retrieve candidate sentences, then re-rank the candidates with a ranker. However, the candidates returned by their ranker may not be the most relevant sentences, since the ranker treats all candidates equally without considering their relevance to the reference sentences of the given concepts. Another problem is that re-ranking is very expensive, but only using retrievers will seriously degrade the performance of their generation models. To solve these problems, we propose the metric distillation rule to distill knowledge from the metric (e.g., BLEU) to the ranker. We further transfer the critical knowledge summarized by the distilled ranker to the retriever. In this way, the relevance scores of candidate sentences predicted by the ranker and retriever will be more consistent with their quality measured by the metric. Experimental results on the CommonGen benchmark verify the effectiveness of our proposed method: (1) Our generation model with the distilled ranker achieves a new state-of-the-art result. (2) Our generation model with the distilled retriever even surpasses the previous SOTA.

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CodeRetriever: A Large Scale Contrastive Pre-Training Method for Code Search
Xiaonan Li | Yeyun Gong | Yelong Shen | Xipeng Qiu | Hang Zhang | Bolun Yao | Weizhen Qi | Daxin Jiang | Weizhu Chen | Nan Duan
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In this paper, we propose the CodeRetriever model, which learns the function-level code semantic representations through large-scale code-text contrastive pre-training. We adopt two contrastive learning schemes in CodeRetriever: unimodal contrastive learning and bimodal contrastive learning. For unimodal contrastive learning, we design an unsupervised learning approach to build semantic-related code pairs based on the documentation and function name. For bimodal contrastive learning, we leverage the documentation and in-line comments of code to build code-text pairs. Both contrastive objectives can fully leverage large-scale code corpus for pre-training. Extensive experimental results show that CodeRetriever achieves new state-of-the-art with significant improvement over existing code pre-trained models, on eleven domain/language-specific code search tasks with six programming languages in different code granularity (function-level, snippet-level and statement-level).These results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of CodeRetriever.The codes and resources are available at https://github.com/microsoft/AR2/tree/main/CodeRetriever.

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Sentiment-Aware Word and Sentence Level Pre-training for Sentiment Analysis
Shuai Fan | Chen Lin | Haonan Li | Zhenghao Lin | Jinsong Su | Hang Zhang | Yeyun Gong | JIan Guo | Nan Duan
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Most existing pre-trained language representation models (PLMs) are sub-optimal in sentiment analysis tasks, as they capture the sentiment information from word-level while under-considering sentence-level information. In this paper, we propose SentiWSP, a novel Sentiment-aware pre-trained language model with combined Word-level and Sentence-level Pre-training tasks. The word level pre-training task detects replaced sentiment words, via a generator-discriminator framework, to enhance the PLM’s knowledge about sentiment words. The sentence level pre-training task further strengthens the discriminator via a contrastive learning framework, with similar sentences as negative samples, to encode sentiments in a sentence. Extensive experimental results show that SentiWSP achieves new state-of-the-art performance on various sentence-level and aspect-level sentiment classification benchmarks. We have made our code and model publicly available at https://github.com/XMUDM/SentiWSP.


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Textual Representations for Crosslingual Information Retrieval
Hang Zhang | Liling Tan
Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on e-Commerce and NLP

In this paper, we explored different levels of textual representations for cross-lingual information retrieval. Beyond the traditional token level representation, we adopted the subword and character level representations for information retrieval that had shown to improve neural machine translation by reducing the out-of-vocabulary issues in machine translation. We found that crosslingual information retrieval performance can be improved by combining search results from subwords and token level representation. Additionally, we improved the search performance by combining and re-ranking the result sets from the different text representations for German, French and Japanese.

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GLGE: A New General Language Generation Evaluation Benchmark
Dayiheng Liu | Yu Yan | Yeyun Gong | Weizhen Qi | Hang Zhang | Jian Jiao | Weizhu Chen | Jie Fu | Linjun Shou | Ming Gong | Pengcheng Wang | Jiusheng Chen | Daxin Jiang | Jiancheng Lv | Ruofei Zhang | Winnie Wu | Ming Zhou | Nan Duan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021