Hanghang Tong


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Noisy Positive-Unlabeled Learning with Self-Training for Speculative Knowledge Graph Reasoning
Ruijie Wang | Baoyu Li | Yichen Lu | Dachun Sun | Jinning Li | Yuchen Yan | Shengzhong Liu | Hanghang Tong | Tarek Abdelzaher
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

This paper studies speculative reasoning task on real-world knowledge graphs (KG) that contain both false negative issue (i.e., potential true facts being excluded) and false positive issue (i.e., unreliable or outdated facts being included). State-of-the-art methods fall short in the speculative reasoning ability, as they assume the correctness of a fact is solely determined by its presence in KG, making them vulnerable to false negative/positive issues. The new reasoning task is formulated as a noisy Positive-Unlabeled learning problem. We propose a variational framework, namely nPUGraph, that jointly estimates the correctness of both collected and uncollected facts (which we call label posterior) and updates model parameters during training. The label posterior estimation facilitates speculative reasoning from two perspectives. First, it improves the robustness of a label posterior-aware graph encoder against false positive links. Second, it identifies missing facts to provide high-quality grounds of reasoning. They are unified in a simple yet effective self-training procedure. Empirically, extensive experiments on three benchmark KG and one Twitter dataset with various degrees of false negative/positive cases demonstrate the effectiveness of nPUGraph.


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GENE: Global Event Network Embedding
Qi Zeng | Manling Li | Tuan Lai | Heng Ji | Mohit Bansal | Hanghang Tong
Proceedings of the Fifteenth Workshop on Graph-Based Methods for Natural Language Processing (TextGraphs-15)

Current methods for event representation ignore related events in a corpus-level global context. For a deep and comprehensive understanding of complex events, we introduce a new task, Event Network Embedding, which aims to represent events by capturing the connections among events. We propose a novel framework, Global Event Network Embedding (GENE), that encodes the event network with a multi-view graph encoder while preserving the graph topology and node semantics. The graph encoder is trained by minimizing both structural and semantic losses. We develop a new series of structured probing tasks, and show that our approach effectively outperforms baseline models on node typing, argument role classification, and event coreference resolution.

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EventKE: Event-Enhanced Knowledge Graph Embedding
Zixuan Zhang | Hongwei Wang | Han Zhao | Hanghang Tong | Heng Ji
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Relations in most of the traditional knowledge graphs (KGs) only reflect static and factual connections, but fail to represent the dynamic activities and state changes about entities. In this paper, we emphasize the importance of incorporating events in KG representation learning, and propose an event-enhanced KG embedding model EventKE. Specifically, given the original KG, we first incorporate event nodes by building a heterogeneous network, where entity nodes and event nodes are distributed on the two sides of the network inter-connected by event argument links. We then use entity-entity relations from the original KG and event-event temporal links to inner-connect entity and event nodes respectively. We design a novel and effective attention-based message passing method, which is conducted on entity-entity, event-entity, and event-event relations to fuse the event information into KG embeddings. Experimental results on real-world datasets demonstrate that events can greatly improve the quality of the KG embeddings on multiple downstream tasks.

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Multiplex Graph Neural Network for Extractive Text Summarization
Baoyu Jing | Zeyu You | Tao Yang | Wei Fan | Hanghang Tong
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Extractive text summarization aims at extracting the most representative sentences from a given document as its summary. To extract a good summary from a long text document, sentence embedding plays an important role. Recent studies have leveraged graph neural networks to capture the inter-sentential relationship (e.g., the discourse graph) within the documents to learn contextual sentence embedding. However, those approaches neither consider multiple types of inter-sentential relationships (e.g., semantic similarity and natural connection relationships), nor model intra-sentential relationships (e.g, semantic similarity and syntactic relationship among words). To address these problems, we propose a novel Multiplex Graph Convolutional Network (Multi-GCN) to jointly model different types of relationships among sentences and words. Based on Multi-GCN, we propose a Multiplex Graph Summarization (Multi-GraS) model for extractive text summarization. Finally, we evaluate the proposed models on the CNN/DailyMail benchmark dataset to demonstrate effectiveness of our method.

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Event Time Extraction and Propagation via Graph Attention Networks
Haoyang Wen | Yanru Qu | Heng Ji | Qiang Ning | Jiawei Han | Avi Sil | Hanghang Tong | Dan Roth
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Grounding events into a precise timeline is important for natural language understanding but has received limited attention in recent work. This problem is challenging due to the inherent ambiguity of language and the requirement for information propagation over inter-related events. This paper first formulates this problem based on a 4-tuple temporal representation used in entity slot filling, which allows us to represent fuzzy time spans more conveniently. We then propose a graph attention network-based approach to propagate temporal information over document-level event graphs constructed by shared entity arguments and temporal relations. To better evaluate our approach, we present a challenging new benchmark on the ACE2005 corpus, where more than 78% of events do not have time spans mentioned explicitly in their local contexts. The proposed approach yields an absolute gain of 7.0% in match rate over contextualized embedding approaches, and 16.3% higher match rate compared to sentence-level manual event time argument annotation.


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HIT: Nested Named Entity Recognition via Head-Tail Pair and Token Interaction
Yu Wang | Yun Li | Hanghang Tong | Ziye Zhu
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Named Entity Recognition (NER) is a fundamental task in natural language processing. In order to identify entities with nested structure, many sophisticated methods have been recently developed based on either the traditional sequence labeling approaches or directed hypergraph structures. Despite being successful, these methods often fall short in striking a good balance between the expression power for nested structure and the model complexity. To address this issue, we present a novel nested NER model named HIT. Our proposed HIT model leverages two key properties pertaining to the (nested) named entity, including (1) explicit boundary tokens and (2) tight internal connection between tokens within the boundary. Specifically, we design (1) Head-Tail Detector based on the multi-head self-attention mechanism and bi-affine classifier to detect boundary tokens, and (2) Token Interaction Tagger based on traditional sequence labeling approaches to characterize the internal token connection within the boundary. Experiments on three public NER datasets demonstrate that the proposed HIT achieves state-of-the-art performance.