Hao Chen


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基于多尺度建模的端到端自动语音识别方法(An End-to-End Automatic Speech Recognition Method Based on Multiscale Modeling)
Hao Chen (陈昊) | Runlai Zhang (张润来) | Yuhao Zhang (张裕浩) | Chenghao Gao (高成浩) | Chen Xu (许晨) | Anxiang Ma (马安香) | Tong Xiao (肖桐) | Jingbo Zhu (朱靖波)
Proceedings of the 22nd Chinese National Conference on Computational Linguistics


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The NiuTrans End-to-End Speech Translation System for IWSLT23 English-to-Chinese Offline Task
Yuchen Han | Xiaoqian Liu | Hao Chen | Yuhao Zhang | Chen Xu | Tong Xiao | Jingbo Zhu
Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Spoken Language Translation (IWSLT 2023)

This paper describes the NiuTrans end-to-end speech translation system submitted for the IWSLT 2023 English-to-Chinese offline task. Our speech translation models are composed of pre-trained ASR and MT models under the SATE framework. Several pre-trained models with diverse architectures and input representations (e.g., log Mel-filterbank and waveform) were utilized. We proposed an IDA method to iteratively improve the performance of the MT models and generate the pseudo ST data through MT systems. We then trained ST models with different structures and data settings to enhance ensemble performance. Experimental results demonstrate that our NiuTrans system achieved a BLEU score of 29.22 on the MuST-C En-Zh tst-COMMON set, outperforming the previous year’s submission by 0.12 BLEU despite using less MT training data.

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Understanding Programs by Exploiting (Fuzzing) Test Cases
Jianyu Zhao | Yuyang Rong | Yiwen Guo | Yifeng He | Hao Chen
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Semantic understanding of programs has attracted great attention in the community. Inspired by recent successes of large language models (LLMs) in natural language understanding, tremendous progress has been made by treating programming language as another sort of natural language and training LLMs on corpora of program code. However, programs are essentially different from texts after all, in a sense that they are normally heavily structured and syntax-strict. In particular, programs and their basic units (i.e., functions and subroutines) are designed to demonstrate a variety of behaviors and/or provide possible outputs, given different inputs. The relationship between inputs and possible outputs/behaviors represents the functions/subroutines and profiles the program as a whole. Hence, we propose to incorporate such a relationship into learning, for achieving a deeper semantic understanding of programs. To obtain inputs that are representative enough to trigger the execution of most part of the code, we resort to fuzz testing and propose fuzz tuning to boost the performance of program understanding and code representation learning, given a pre-trained LLM. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified on two program understanding tasks including code clone detection and code classification, and it outperforms current state-of-the-arts by large margins. Code is available at https://github.com/rabbitjy/FuzzTuning.

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PromptRank: Unsupervised Keyphrase Extraction Using Prompt
Aobo Kong | Shiwan Zhao | Hao Chen | Qicheng Li | Yong Qin | Ruiqi Sun | Xiaoyan Bai
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

The keyphrase extraction task refers to the automatic selection of phrases from a given document to summarize its core content. State-of-the-art (SOTA) performance has recently been achieved by embedding-based algorithms, which rank candidates according to how similar their embeddings are to document embeddings. However, such solutions either struggle with the document and candidate length discrepancies or fail to fully utilize the pre-trained language model (PLM) without further fine-tuning. To this end, in this paper, we propose a simple yet effective unsupervised approach, PromptRank, based on the PLM with an encoder-decoder architecture. Specifically, PromptRank feeds the document into the encoder and calculates the probability of generating the candidate with a designed prompt by the decoder. We extensively evaluate the proposed PromptRank on six widely used benchmarks. PromptRank outperforms the SOTA approach MDERank, improving the F1 score relatively by 34.18%, 24.87%, and 17.57% for 5, 10, and 15 returned results, respectively. This demonstrates the great potential of using prompt for unsupervised keyphrase extraction. We release our code at https://github.com/HLT-NLP/PromptRank.

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USSA: A Unified Table Filling Scheme for Structured Sentiment Analysis
Zepeng Zhai | Hao Chen | Ruifan Li | Xiaojie Wang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Most previous studies on Structured Sentiment Analysis (SSA) have cast it as a problem of bi-lexical dependency parsing, which cannot address issues of overlap and discontinuity simultaneously. In this paper, we propose a niche-targeting and effective solution. Our approach involves creating a novel bi-lexical dependency parsing graph, which is then converted to a unified 2D table-filling scheme, namely USSA. The proposed scheme resolves the kernel bottleneck of previous SSA methods by utilizing 13 different types of relations. In addition, to closely collaborate with the USSA scheme, we have developed a model that includes a proposed bi-axial attention module to effectively capture the correlations among relations in the rows and columns of the table. Extensive experimental results on benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our proposed framework, outperforming state-of-the-art methods consistently.


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Enhanced Representation with Contrastive Loss for Long-Tail Query Classification in e-commerce
Lvxing Zhu | Hao Chen | Chao Wei | Weiru Zhang
Proceedings of the Fifth Workshop on e-Commerce and NLP (ECNLP 5)

Query classification is a fundamental task in an e-commerce search engine, which assigns one or multiple predefined product categories in response to each search query. Taking click-through logs as training data in deep learning methods is a common and effective approach for query classification. However, the frequency distribution of queries typically has long-tail property, which means that there are few logs for most of the queries. The lack of reliable user feedback information results in worse performance of long-tail queries compared with frequent queries. To solve the above problem, we propose a novel method that leverages an auxiliary module to enhance the representations of long-tail queries by taking advantage of reliable supervised information of variant frequent queries. The long-tail queries are guided by the contrastive loss to obtain category-aligned representations in the auxiliary module, where the variant frequent queries serve as anchors in the representation space. We train our model with real-world click data from AliExpress and conduct evaluation on both offline labeled data and online AB test. The results and further analysis demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method.

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Enhanced Multi-Channel Graph Convolutional Network for Aspect Sentiment Triplet Extraction
Hao Chen | Zepeng Zhai | Fangxiang Feng | Ruifan Li | Xiaojie Wang
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Aspect Sentiment Triplet Extraction (ASTE) is an emerging sentiment analysis task. Most of the existing studies focus on devising a new tagging scheme that enables the model to extract the sentiment triplets in an end-to-end fashion. However, these methods ignore the relations between words for ASTE task. In this paper, we propose an Enhanced Multi-Channel Graph Convolutional Network model (EMC-GCN) to fully utilize the relations between words. Specifically, we first define ten types of relations for ASTE task, and then adopt a biaffine attention module to embed these relations as an adjacent tensor between words in a sentence. After that, our EMC-GCN transforms the sentence into a multi-channel graph by treating words and the relation adjacent tensor as nodes and edges, respectively. Thus, relation-aware node representations can be learnt. Furthermore, we consider diverse linguistic features to enhance our EMC-GCN model. Finally, we design an effective refining strategy on EMC-GCN for word-pair representation refinement, which considers the implicit results of aspect and opinion extraction when determining whether word pairs match or not. Extensive experimental results on the benchmark datasets demonstrate that the effectiveness and robustness of our proposed model, which outperforms state-of-the-art methods significantly.

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Semantic Framework based Query Generation for Temporal Question Answering over Knowledge Graphs
Wentao Ding | Hao Chen | Huayu Li | Yuzhong Qu
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Answering factual questions with temporal intent over knowledge graphs (temporal KGQA) attracts rising attention in recent years. In the generation of temporal queries, existing KGQA methods ignore the fact that some intrinsic connections between events can make them temporally related, which may limit their capability. We systematically analyze the possible interpretation of temporal constraints and conclude the interpretation structures as the Semantic Framework of Temporal Constraints, SF-TCons. Based on the semantic framework, we propose a temporal question answering method, SF-TQA, which generates query graphs by exploring the relevant facts of mentioned entities, where the exploring process is restricted by SF-TCons. Our evaluations show that SF-TQA significantly outperforms existing methods on two benchmarks over different knowledge graphs.

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COM-MRC: A COntext-Masked Machine Reading Comprehension Framework for Aspect Sentiment Triplet Extraction
Zepeng Zhai | Hao Chen | Fangxiang Feng | Ruifan Li | Xiaojie Wang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Aspect Sentiment Triplet Extraction (ASTE) aims to extract sentiment triplets from sentences, which was recently formalized as an effective machine reading comprehension (MRC) based framework. However, when facing multiple aspect terms, the MRC-based methods could fail due to the interference from other aspect terms. In this paper, we propose a novel COntext-Masked MRC (COM-MRC) framework for ASTE. Our COM-MRC framework comprises three closely-related components: a context augmentation strategy, a discriminative model, and an inference method. Specifically, a context augmentation strategy is designed by enumerating all masked contexts for each aspect term. The discriminative model comprises four modules, i.e., aspect and opinion extraction modules, sentiment classification and aspect detection modules. In addition, a two-stage inference method first extracts all aspects and then identifies their opinions and sentiment through iteratively masking the aspects. Extensive experimental results on benchmark datasets show the effectiveness of our proposed COM-MRC framework, which outperforms state-of-the-art methods consistently.


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ECNU_ICA_1 SemEval-2021 Task 4: Leveraging Knowledge-enhanced Graph Attention Networks for Reading Comprehension of Abstract Meaning
Pingsheng Liu | Linlin Wang | Qian Zhao | Hao Chen | Yuxi Feng | Xin Lin | Liang He
Proceedings of the 15th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2021)

This paper describes our system for SemEval-2021 Task 4: Reading Comprehension of Abstract Meaning. To accomplish this task, we utilize the Knowledge-Enhanced Graph Attention Network (KEGAT) architecture with a novel semantic space transformation strategy. It leverages heterogeneous knowledge to learn adequate evidences, and seeks for an effective semantic space of abstract concepts to better improve the ability of a machine in understanding the abstract meaning of natural language. Experimental results show that our system achieves strong performance on this task in terms of both imperceptibility and nonspecificity.

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Dual Graph Convolutional Networks for Aspect-based Sentiment Analysis
Ruifan Li | Hao Chen | Fangxiang Feng | Zhanyu Ma | Xiaojie Wang | Eduard Hovy
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Aspect-based sentiment analysis is a fine-grained sentiment classification task. Recently, graph neural networks over dependency trees have been explored to explicitly model connections between aspects and opinion words. However, the improvement is limited due to the inaccuracy of the dependency parsing results and the informal expressions and complexity of online reviews. To overcome these challenges, in this paper, we propose a dual graph convolutional networks (DualGCN) model that considers the complementarity of syntax structures and semantic correlations simultaneously. Particularly, to alleviate dependency parsing errors, we design a SynGCN module with rich syntactic knowledge. To capture semantic correlations, we design a SemGCN module with self-attention mechanism. Furthermore, we propose orthogonal and differential regularizers to capture semantic correlations between words precisely by constraining attention scores in the SemGCN module. The orthogonal regularizer encourages the SemGCN to learn semantically correlated words with less overlap for each word. The differential regularizer encourages the SemGCN to learn semantic features that the SynGCN fails to capture. Experimental results on three public datasets show that our DualGCN model outperforms state-of-the-art methods and verify the effectiveness of our model.

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Reinforced Counterfactual Data Augmentation for Dual Sentiment Classification
Hao Chen | Rui Xia | Jianfei Yu
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Data augmentation and adversarial perturbation approaches have recently achieved promising results in solving the over-fitting problem in many natural language processing (NLP) tasks including sentiment classification. However, existing studies aimed to improve the generalization ability by augmenting the training data with synonymous examples or adding random noises to word embeddings, which cannot address the spurious association problem. In this work, we propose an end-to-end reinforcement learning framework, which jointly performs counterfactual data generation and dual sentiment classification. Our approach has three characteristics:1) the generator automatically generates massive and diverse antonymous sentences; 2) the discriminator contains a original-side sentiment predictor and an antonymous-side sentiment predictor, which jointly evaluate the quality of the generated sample and help the generator iteratively generate higher-quality antonymous samples; 3) the discriminator is directly used as the final sentiment classifier without the need to build an extra one. Extensive experiments show that our approach outperforms strong data augmentation baselines on several benchmark sentiment classification datasets. Further analysis confirms our approach’s advantages in generating more diverse training samples and solving the spurious association problem in sentiment classification.


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A Multi-answer Multi-task Framework for Real-world Machine Reading Comprehension
Jiahua Liu | Wan Wei | Maosong Sun | Hao Chen | Yantao Du | Dekang Lin
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

The task of machine reading comprehension (MRC) has evolved from answering simple questions from well-edited text to answering real questions from users out of web data. In the real-world setting, full-body text from multiple relevant documents in the top search results are provided as context for questions from user queries, including not only questions with a single, short, and factual answer, but also questions about reasons, procedures, and opinions. In this case, multiple answers could be equally valid for a single question and each answer may occur multiple times in the context, which should be taken into consideration when we build MRC system. We propose a multi-answer multi-task framework, in which different loss functions are used for multiple reference answers. Minimum Risk Training is applied to solve the multi-occurrence problem of a single answer. Combined with a simple heuristic passage extraction strategy for overlong documents, our model increases the ROUGE-L score on the DuReader dataset from 44.18, the previous state-of-the-art, to 51.09.


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An Unsupervised Approach to Chinese Word Sense Disambiguation Based on Hownet
Hao Chen | Tingting He | Donghong Ji | Changqin Quan
International Journal of Computational Linguistics & Chinese Language Processing, Volume 10, Number 4, December 2005: Special Issue on Selected Papers from CLSW-5