Neural language models are often trained with maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), where the next word is generated conditioned on the ground-truth word tokens. During testing, however, the model is instead conditioned on previously generated tokens, resulting in what is termed exposure bias. To reduce this gap between training and testing, we propose using optimal transport (OT) to match the sequences generated in these two modes. We examine the necessity of adding Student-Forcing scheme during training with an imitation learning interpretation. An extension is further proposed to improve the OT learning for long sequences, based on the structural and contextual information of the text sequences. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated on machine translation, text summarization, and text generation tasks.
Variational autoencoders (VAE) with an auto-regressive decoder have been applied for many natural language processing (NLP) tasks. VAE objective consists of two terms, the KL regularization term and the reconstruction term, balanced by a weighting hyper-parameter 𝛽. One notorious training difficulty is that the KL term tends to vanish. In this paper we study different scheduling schemes for 𝛽, and show that KL vanishing is caused by the lack of good latent codes in training decoder at the beginning of optimization. To remedy the issue, we propose a cyclical annealing schedule, which simply repeats the process of increasing 𝛽 multiple times. This new procedure allows us to learn more meaningful latent codes progressively by leveraging the results of previous learning cycles as warm re-restart. The effectiveness of cyclical annealing schedule is validated on a broad range of NLP tasks, including language modeling, dialog response generation and semi-supervised text classification.
In this paper, we propose to incorporate topic aspects information for online comments convincingness evaluation. Our model makes use of graph convolutional network to utilize implicit topic information within a discussion thread to assist the evaluation of convincingness of each single comment. In order to test the effectiveness of our proposed model, we annotate topic information on top of a public dataset for argument convincingness evaluation. Experimental results show that topic information is able to improve the performance for convincingness evaluation. We also make a move to detect topic aspects automatically.