Procedural text understanding aims at tracking the states (e.g., create, move, destroy) and locations of the entities mentioned in a given paragraph. To effectively track the states and locations, it is essential to capture the rich semantic relations between entities, actions, and locations in the paragraph. Although recent works have achieved substantial progress, most of them focus on leveraging the inherent constraints or incorporating external knowledge for state prediction. The rich semantic relations in the given paragraph are largely overlooked. In this paper, we propose a novel approach (REAL) to procedural text understanding, where we build a general framework to systematically model the entity-entity, entity-action, and entity-location relations using a graph neural network. We further develop algorithms for graph construction, representation learning, and state and location tracking. We evaluate the proposed approach on two benchmark datasets, ProPara, and Recipes. The experimental results show that our method outperforms strong baselines by a large margin, i.e., 5.0% on ProPara and 3.2% on Recipes, illustrating the utility of semantic relations and the effectiveness of the graph-based reasoning model.
Many graph embedding approaches have been proposed for knowledge graph completion via link prediction. Among those, translating embedding approaches enjoy the advantages of light-weight structure, high efficiency and great interpretability. Especially when extended to complex vector space, they show the capability in handling various relation patterns including symmetry, antisymmetry, inversion and composition. However, previous translating embedding approaches defined in complex vector space suffer from two main issues: 1) representing and modeling capacities of the model are limited by the translation function with rigorous multiplication of two complex numbers; and 2) embedding ambiguity caused by one-to-many relations is not explicitly alleviated. In this paper, we propose a relation-adaptive translation function built upon a novel weighted product in complex space, where the weights are learnable, relation-specific and independent to embedding size. The translation function only requires eight more scalar parameters each relation, but improves expressive power and alleviates embedding ambiguity problem. Based on the function, we then present our Relation-adaptive translating Embedding (RatE) approach to score each graph triple. Moreover, a novel negative sampling method is proposed to utilize both prior knowledge and self-adversarial learning for effective optimization. Experiments verify RatE achieves state-of-the-art performance on four link prediction benchmarks.