Haochen Li


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Rethinking Negative Pairs in Code Search
Haochen Li | Xin Zhou | Anh Luu | Chunyan Miao
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Recently, contrastive learning has become a key component in fine-tuning code search models for software development efficiency and effectiveness. It pulls together positive code snippets while pushing negative samples away given search queries. Among contrastive learning, InfoNCE is the most widely used loss function due to its better performance. However, the following problems in negative samples of InfoNCE may deteriorate its representation learning: 1) The existence of false negative samples in large code corpora due to duplications. 2). The failure to explicitly differentiate between the potential relevance of negative samples. As an example, a bubble sorting algorithm example is less “negative” than a file saving function for the quick sorting algorithm query. In this paper, we tackle the above problems by proposing a simple yet effective Soft-InfoNCE loss that inserts weight terms into InfoNCE. In our proposed loss function, we apply three methods to estimate the weights of negative pairs and show that the vanilla InfoNCE loss is a special case of Soft-InfoNCE. Theoretically, we analyze the effects of Soft-InfoNCE on controlling the distribution of learnt code representations and on deducing a more precise mutual information estimation. We furthermore discuss the superiority of proposed loss functions with other design alternatives. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of Soft-InfoNCE and weights estimation methods under state-of-the-art code search models on a large-scale public dataset consisting of six programming languages.


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Exploring Representation-level Augmentation for Code Search
Haochen Li | Chunyan Miao | Cyril Leung | Yanxian Huang | Yuan Huang | Hongyu Zhang | Yanlin Wang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Code search, which aims at retrieving the most relevant code fragment for a given natural language query, is a common activity in software development practice. Recently, contrastive learning is widely used in code search research, where many data augmentation approaches for source code (e.g., semantic-preserving program transformation) are proposed to learn better representations. However, these augmentations are at the raw-data level, which requires additional code analysis in the preprocessing stage and additional training cost in the training stage. In this paper, we explore augmentation methods that augment data (both code and query) at representation level which does not require additional data processing and training, and based on this we propose a general format of representation-level augmentation that unifies existing methods. Then, we propose three new augmentation methods (linear extrapolation, binary interpolation, and Gaussian scaling) based on the general format. Furthermore, we theoretically analyze the advantages of the proposed augmentation methods over traditional contrastive learning methods on code search. We experimentally evaluate the proposed representation-level augmentation methods with state-of-the-art code search models on a large-scale public dataset consisting of six programming languages. The experimental results show that our approach can consistently boost the performance of the studied code search models.

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KiPT: Knowledge-injected Prompt Tuning for Event Detection
Haochen Li | Tong Mo | Hongcheng Fan | Jingkun Wang | Jiaxi Wang | Fuhao Zhang | Weiping Li
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Event detection aims to detect events from the text by identifying and classifying event triggers (the most representative words). Most of the existing works rely heavily on complex downstream networks and require sufficient training data. Thus, those models may be structurally redundant and perform poorly when data is scarce. Prompt-based models are easy to build and are promising for few-shot tasks. However, current prompt-based methods may suffer from low precision because they have not introduced event-related semantic knowledge (e.g., part of speech, semantic correlation, etc.). To address these problems, this paper proposes a Knowledge-injected Prompt Tuning (KiPT) model. Specifically, the event detection task is formulated into a condition generation task. Then, knowledge-injected prompts are constructed using external knowledge bases, and a prompt tuning strategy is leveraged to optimize the prompts. Extensive experiments indicate that KiPT outperforms strong baselines, especially in few-shot scenarios.