Haonan Li


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Location Aware Modular Biencoder for Tourism Question Answering
Haonan Li | Martin Tomko | Timothy Baldwin
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: IJCNLP-AACL 2023 (Findings)

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Large Language Models Only Pass Primary School Exams in Indonesia: A Comprehensive Test on IndoMMLU
Fajri Koto | Nurul Aisyah | Haonan Li | Timothy Baldwin
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Although large language models (LLMs) are often pre-trained on large-scale multilingual texts, their reasoning abilities and real-world knowledge are mainly evaluated based on English datasets. Assessing LLM capabilities beyond English is increasingly vital but hindered due to the lack of suitable datasets. In this work, we introduce IndoMMLU, the first multi-task language understanding benchmark for Indonesian culture and languages, which consists of questions from primary school to university entrance exams in Indonesia. By employing professional teachers, we obtain 14,981 questions across 64 tasks and education levels, with 46% of the questions focusing on assessing proficiency in the Indonesian language and knowledge of nine local languages and cultures in Indonesia. Our empirical evaluations show that GPT-3.5 only manages to pass the Indonesian primary school level, with limited knowledge of local Indonesian languages and culture. Other smaller models such as BLOOMZ and Falcon perform at even lower levels.

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Can Large Langauge Model Comprehend Ancient Chinese? A Preliminary Test on ACLUE
Yixuan Zhang | Haonan Li
Proceedings of the Ancient Language Processing Workshop

Large language models (LLMs) have demonstrated exceptional language understanding and generation capabilities. However, their ability to comprehend ancient languages, specifically ancient Chinese, remains largely unexplored. To bridge this gap, we introduce ACLUE, an evaluation benchmark designed to assess the language abilities of models in relation to ancient Chinese. ACLUE consists of 15 tasks that cover a range of skills, including phonetic, lexical, syntactic, semantic, inference and knowledge. By evaluating 8 state-of-the-art multilingual and Chinese LLMs, we have observed a significant divergence in their performance between modern Chinese and ancient Chinese. Among the evaluated models, ChatGLM2 demonstrates the highest level of performance, achieving an average accuracy of 37.45%. We have established a leaderboard for communities to assess their models.


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Sentiment-Aware Word and Sentence Level Pre-training for Sentiment Analysis
Shuai Fan | Chen Lin | Haonan Li | Zhenghao Lin | Jinsong Su | Hang Zhang | Yeyun Gong | JIan Guo | Nan Duan
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Most existing pre-trained language representation models (PLMs) are sub-optimal in sentiment analysis tasks, as they capture the sentiment information from word-level while under-considering sentence-level information. In this paper, we propose SentiWSP, a novel Sentiment-aware pre-trained language model with combined Word-level and Sentence-level Pre-training tasks. The word level pre-training task detects replaced sentiment words, via a generator-discriminator framework, to enhance the PLM’s knowledge about sentiment words. The sentence level pre-training task further strengthens the discriminator via a contrastive learning framework, with similar sentences as negative samples, to encode sentiments in a sentence. Extensive experimental results show that SentiWSP achieves new state-of-the-art performance on various sentence-level and aspect-level sentiment classification benchmarks. We have made our code and model publicly available at https://github.com/XMUDM/SentiWSP.

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MultiSpanQA: A Dataset for Multi-Span Question Answering
Haonan Li | Martin Tomko | Maria Vasardani | Timothy Baldwin
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Most existing reading comprehension datasets focus on single-span answers, which can be extracted as a single contiguous span from a given text passage. Multi-span questions, i.e., questions whose answer is a series of multiple discontiguous spans in the text, are common real life but are less studied. In this paper, we present MultiSpanQA, a new dataset that focuses on multi-span questions. Raw questions and contexts are extracted from the Natural Questions dataset. After multi-span re-annotation, MultiSpanQA consists of over a total of 6,000 multi-span questions in the basic version, and over 19,000 examples with unanswerable questions, and questions with single-, and multi-span answers in the expanded version. We introduce new metrics for the purposes of multi-span question answering evaluation, and establish several baselines using advanced models. Finally, we propose a new model which beats all baselines and achieves state-of-the-art on our dataset.

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CULG: Commercial Universal Language Generation
Haonan Li | Yameng Huang | Yeyun Gong | Jian Jiao | Ruofei Zhang | Timothy Baldwin | Nan Duan
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies: Industry Track

Pre-trained language models (PLMs) have dramatically improved performance for many natural language processing (NLP) tasks in domains such as finance and healthcare. However, the application of PLMs in the domain of commerce, especially marketing and advertising, remains less studied. In this work, we adapt pre-training methods to the domain of commerce, by proposing CULG, a large-scale commercial universal language generation model which is pre-trained on a corpus drawn from 10 markets across 7 languages. We propose 4 commercial generation tasks and a two-stage training strategy for pre-training, and demonstrate that the proposed strategy yields performance improvements on three generation tasks as compared to single-stage pre-training. Extensive experiments show that our model outperforms other models by a large margin on commercial generation tasks, and we conclude with a discussion on additional applications over other markets, languages, and tasks.


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KFCNet: Knowledge Filtering and Contrastive Learning for Generative Commonsense Reasoning
Haonan Li | Yeyun Gong | Jian Jiao | Ruofei Zhang | Timothy Baldwin | Nan Duan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Pre-trained language models have led to substantial gains over a broad range of natural language processing (NLP) tasks, but have been shown to have limitations for natural language generation tasks with high-quality requirements on the output, such as commonsense generation and ad keyword generation. In this work, we present a novel Knowledge Filtering and Contrastive learning Network (KFCNet) which references external knowledge and achieves better generation performance. Specifically, we propose a BERT-based filter model to remove low-quality candidates, and apply contrastive learning separately to each of the encoder and decoder, within a general encoder–decoder architecture. The encoder contrastive module helps to capture global target semantics during encoding, and the decoder contrastive module enhances the utility of retrieved prototypes while learning general features. Extensive experiments on the CommonGen benchmark show that our model outperforms the previous state of the art by a large margin: +6.6 points (42.5 vs. 35.9) for BLEU-4, +3.7 points (33.3 vs. 29.6) for SPICE, and +1.3 points (18.3 vs. 17.0) for CIDEr. We further verify the effectiveness of the proposed contrastive module on ad keyword generation, and show that our model has potential commercial value.


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Target Word Masking for Location Metonymy Resolution
Haonan Li | Maria Vasardani | Martin Tomko | Timothy Baldwin
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Existing metonymy resolution approaches rely on features extracted from external resources like dictionaries and hand-crafted lexical resources. In this paper, we propose an end-to-end word-level classification approach based only on BERT, without dependencies on taggers, parsers, curated dictionaries of place names, or other external resources. We show that our approach achieves the state-of-the-art on 5 datasets, surpassing conventional BERT models and benchmarks by a large margin. We also show that our approach generalises well to unseen data.


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UniMelb at SemEval-2019 Task 12: Multi-model combination for toponym resolution
Haonan Li | Minghan Wang | Timothy Baldwin | Martin Tomko | Maria Vasardani
Proceedings of the 13th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

This paper describes our submission to SemEval-2019 Task 12 on toponym resolution over scientific articles. We train separate NER models for toponym detection over text extracted from tables vs. text from the body of the paper, and train another auxiliary model to eliminate misdetected toponyms. For toponym disambiguation, we use an SVM classifier with hand-engineered features. The best setting achieved a strict micro-F1 score of 80.92% and overlap micro-F1 score of 86.88% in the toponym detection subtask, ranking 2nd out of 8 teams on F1 score. For toponym disambiguation and end-to-end resolution, we officially ranked 2nd and 3rd, respectively.