Haoyang Huang


pdf bib
Revamping Multilingual Agreement Bidirectionally via Switched Back-translation for Multilingual Neural Machine Translation
Hongyuan Lu | Haoyang Huang | Dongdong Zhang | Furu Wei | Wai Lam
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EACL 2024

Despite the fact that multilingual agreement (MA) has shown its importance for multilingual neural machine translation (MNMT), current methodologies in the field have two shortages: (i) require parallel data between multiple language pairs, which is not always realistic and (ii) optimize the agreement in an ambiguous direction, which hampers the translation performance. We present Bidirectional Multilingual Agreement via Switched Back-translation (BMA-SBT), a novel and universal multilingual agreement framework for fine-tuning pre-trained MNMT models, which (i) exempts the need for aforementioned parallel data by using a novel method called switched BT that creates synthetic text written in another source language using the translation target and (ii) optimizes the agreement bidirectionally with the Kullback-Leibler Divergence loss. Experiments indicate that BMA-SBT clearly improves the strong baselines on the task of MNMT with three benchmarks: TED Talks, News, and Europarl. In-depth analyzes indicate that BMA-SBT brings additive improvements to the conventional BT method.


pdf bib
TRIP: Accelerating Document-level Multilingual Pre-training via Triangular Document-level Pre-training on Parallel Data Triplets
Hongyuan Lu | Haoyang Huang | Shuming Ma | Dongdong Zhang | Wai Lam | Zhaochuan Gao | Anthony Aue | Arul Menezes | Furu Wei
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Despite the success of multilingual sequence-to-sequence pre-training, most existing approaches rely on document-level monolingual corpora in many different languages, sentence-level bilingual corpora, and sometimes synthetic document-level bilingual corpora. This hampers the performance with cross-lingual document-level tasks such as document-level translation. Hence, we propose to mine and leverage document-level trilingual parallel corpora to improve sequence-to-sequence multilingual pre-training. We present Triangular Document-level Pre-training (TRIP) as the first in the field to accelerate the conventional monolingual and bilingual objectives into a trilingual objective with a novel method called Grafting. Experiments show that TRIP achieves several strong state-of-the-art (SOTA) scores on three multilingual document-level machine translation benchmarks and one cross-lingual abstractive summarization benchmark, including consistent improvements by up to 3.11 d-BLEU points and 8.9 ROUGE-L points.

pdf bib
Not All Languages Are Created Equal in LLMs: Improving Multilingual Capability by Cross-Lingual-Thought Prompting
Haoyang Huang | Tianyi Tang | Dongdong Zhang | Xin Zhao | Ting Song | Yan Xia | Furu Wei
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Large language models (LLMs) demonstrate impressive multilingual capability, but their performance varies substantially across different languages. In this work, we introduce a simple yet effective method, called cross-lingual-thought prompting (XLT), to systematically improve the multilingual capability of LLMs. Specifically, XLT is a generic template prompt that stimulates cross-lingual and logical reasoning skills to enhance task performance across languages. We conduct comprehensive evaluations on 7 typical benchmarks related to reasoning, understanding, and generation tasks, covering both high-resource and low-resource languages. Experimental results show that XLT not only remarkably enhances the performance of various multilingual tasks but also significantly reduces the gap between the average performance and the best performance of each task in different languages. Notably, XLT brings over 10 points of average improvement in arithmetic reasoning and open-domain question-answering tasks.

pdf bib
GanLM: Encoder-Decoder Pre-training with an Auxiliary Discriminator
Jian Yang | Shuming Ma | Li Dong | Shaohan Huang | Haoyang Huang | Yuwei Yin | Dongdong Zhang | Liqun Yang | Furu Wei | Zhoujun Li
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Pre-trained models have achieved remarkable success in natural language processing (NLP). However, existing pre-training methods underutilize the benefits of language understanding for generation. Inspired by the idea of Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs), we propose a GAN-style model for encoder-decoder pre-training by introducing an auxiliary discriminator, unifying the ability of language understanding and generation in a single model. Our model, named as GanLM, is trained with two pre-training objectives: replaced token detection and replaced token denoising. Specifically, given masked source sentences, the generator outputs the target distribution and the discriminator predicts whether the target sampled tokens from distribution are incorrect. The target sentence is replaced with misclassified tokens to construct noisy previous context, which is used to generate the gold sentence. In general, both tasks improve the ability of language understanding and generation by selectively using the denoising data. Extensive experiments in language generation benchmarks show that GanLM with the powerful language understanding capability outperforms various strong pre-trained language models (PLMs) and achieves state-of-the-art performance.


pdf bib
BlonDe: An Automatic Evaluation Metric for Document-level Machine Translation
Yuchen Jiang | Tianyu Liu | Shuming Ma | Dongdong Zhang | Jian Yang | Haoyang Huang | Rico Sennrich | Ryan Cotterell | Mrinmaya Sachan | Ming Zhou
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Standard automatic metrics, e.g. BLEU, are not reliable for document-level MT evaluation. They can neither distinguish document-level improvements in translation quality from sentence-level ones, nor identify the discourse phenomena that cause context-agnostic translations. This paper introduces a novel automatic metric BlonDe to widen the scope of automatic MT evaluation from sentence to document level. BlonDe takes discourse coherence into consideration by categorizing discourse-related spans and calculating the similarity-based F1 measure of categorized spans. We conduct extensive comparisons on a newly constructed dataset BWB. The experimental results show that BlonDe possesses better selectivity and interpretability at the document-level, and is more sensitive to document-level nuances. In a large-scale human study, BlonDe also achieves significantly higher Pearson’s r correlation with human judgments compared to previous metrics.

pdf bib
LVP-M3: Language-aware Visual Prompt for Multilingual Multimodal Machine Translation
Hongcheng Guo | Jiaheng Liu | Haoyang Huang | Jian Yang | Zhoujun Li | Dongdong Zhang | Zheng Cui
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Multimodal Machine Translation (MMT) focuses on enhancing text-only translation with visual features, which has attracted considerable attention from both natural language processing and computer vision communities. Recent advances still struggle to train a separate model for each language pair, which is costly and unaffordable when the number of languages increases in the real world. In other words, the multilingual multimodal machine translation (Multilingual MMT) task has not been investigated, which aims to handle the aforementioned issues by providing a shared semantic space for multiple languages. Besides, the image modality has no language boundaries, which is superior to bridging the semantic gap between languages. To this end,we first propose the Multilingual MMT task by establishing two new Multilingual MMT benchmark datasets covering seven languages. Then, an effective baseline LVP-M3 using visual prompts is proposed to support translations between different languages,which includes three stages (token encoding, language-aware visual prompt generation, and language translation). Extensive experimental results on our constructed benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of LVP-M3 method for Multilingual MMT.


pdf bib
Multilingual Machine Translation Systems from Microsoft for WMT21 Shared Task
Jian Yang | Shuming Ma | Haoyang Huang | Dongdong Zhang | Li Dong | Shaohan Huang | Alexandre Muzio | Saksham Singhal | Hany Hassan | Xia Song | Furu Wei
Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Machine Translation

This report describes Microsoft’s machine translation systems for the WMT21 shared task on large-scale multilingual machine translation. We participated in all three evaluation tracks including Large Track and two Small Tracks where the former one is unconstrained and the latter two are fully constrained. Our model submissions to the shared task were initialized with DeltaLM, a generic pre-trained multilingual encoder-decoder model, and fine-tuned correspondingly with the vast collected parallel data and allowed data sources according to track settings, together with applying progressive learning and iterative back-translation approaches to further improve the performance. Our final submissions ranked first on three tracks in terms of the automatic evaluation metric.

pdf bib
Improving Multilingual Neural Machine Translation with Auxiliary Source Languages
Weijia Xu | Yuwei Yin | Shuming Ma | Dongdong Zhang | Haoyang Huang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Multilingual neural machine translation models typically handle one source language at a time. However, prior work has shown that translating from multiple source languages improves translation quality. Different from existing approaches on multi-source translation that are limited to the test scenario where parallel source sentences from multiple languages are available at inference time, we propose to improve multilingual translation in a more common scenario by exploiting synthetic source sentences from auxiliary languages. We train our model on synthetic multi-source corpora and apply random masking to enable flexible inference with single-source or bi-source inputs. Extensive experiments on Chinese/English-Japanese and a large-scale multilingual translation benchmark show that our model outperforms the multilingual baseline significantly by up to +4.0 BLEU with the largest improvements on low-resource or distant language pairs.

pdf bib
Hierarchical Context-aware Network for Dense Video Event Captioning
Lei Ji | Xianglin Guo | Haoyang Huang | Xilin Chen
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Dense video event captioning aims to generate a sequence of descriptive captions for each event in a long untrimmed video. Video-level context provides important information and facilities the model to generate consistent and less redundant captions between events. In this paper, we introduce a novel Hierarchical Context-aware Network for dense video event captioning (HCN) to capture context from various aspects. In detail, the model leverages local and global context with different mechanisms to jointly learn to generate coherent captions. The local context module performs full interaction between neighbor frames and the global context module selectively attends to previous or future events. According to our extensive experiment on both Youcook2 and Activitynet Captioning datasets, the video-level HCN model outperforms the event-level context-agnostic model by a large margin. The code is available at https://github.com/KirkGuo/HCN.

pdf bib
Multilingual Agreement for Multilingual Neural Machine Translation
Jian Yang | Yuwei Yin | Shuming Ma | Haoyang Huang | Dongdong Zhang | Zhoujun Li | Furu Wei
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Although multilingual neural machine translation (MNMT) enables multiple language translations, the training process is based on independent multilingual objectives. Most multilingual models can not explicitly exploit different language pairs to assist each other, ignoring the relationships among them. In this work, we propose a novel agreement-based method to encourage multilingual agreement among different translation directions, which minimizes the differences among them. We combine the multilingual training objectives with the agreement term by randomly substituting some fragments of the source language with their counterpart translations of auxiliary languages. To examine the effectiveness of our method, we conduct experiments on the multilingual translation task of 10 language pairs. Experimental results show that our method achieves significant improvements over the previous multilingual baselines.


pdf bib
Unicoder: A Universal Language Encoder by Pre-training with Multiple Cross-lingual Tasks
Haoyang Huang | Yaobo Liang | Nan Duan | Ming Gong | Linjun Shou | Daxin Jiang | Ming Zhou
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

We present Unicoder, a universal language encoder that is insensitive to different languages. Given an arbitrary NLP task, a model can be trained with Unicoder using training data in one language and directly applied to inputs of the same task in other languages. Comparing to similar efforts such as Multilingual BERT and XLM , three new cross-lingual pre-training tasks are proposed, including cross-lingual word recovery, cross-lingual paraphrase classification and cross-lingual masked language model. These tasks help Unicoder learn the mappings among different languages from more perspectives. We also find that doing fine-tuning on multiple languages together can bring further improvement. Experiments are performed on two tasks: cross-lingual natural language inference (XNLI) and cross-lingual question answering (XQA), where XLM is our baseline. On XNLI, 1.8% averaged accuracy improvement (on 15 languages) is obtained. On XQA, which is a new cross-lingual dataset built by us, 5.5% averaged accuracy improvement (on French and German) is obtained.

pdf bib
Improving the Robustness of Deep Reading Comprehension Models by Leveraging Syntax Prior
Bowen Wu | Haoyang Huang | Zongsheng Wang | Qihang Feng | Jingsong Yu | Baoxun Wang
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Machine Reading for Question Answering

Despite the remarkable progress on Machine Reading Comprehension (MRC) with the help of open-source datasets, recent studies indicate that most of the current MRC systems unfortunately suffer from weak robustness against adversarial samples. To address this issue, we attempt to take sentence syntax as the leverage in the answer predicting process which previously only takes account of phrase-level semantics. Furthermore, to better utilize the sentence syntax and improve the robustness, we propose a Syntactic Leveraging Network, which is designed to deal with adversarial samples by exploiting the syntactic elements of a question. The experiment results indicate that our method is promising for improving the generalization and robustness of MRC models against the influence of adversarial samples, with performance well-maintained.