Harsh Trivedi


2022

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Single-Turn Debate Does Not Help Humans Answer Hard Reading-Comprehension Questions
Alicia Parrish | Harsh Trivedi | Ethan Perez | Angelica Chen | Nikita Nangia | Jason Phang | Samuel Bowman
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Learning with Natural Language Supervision

Current QA systems can generate reasonable-sounding yet false answers without explanation or evidence for the generated answer, which is especially problematic when humans cannot readily check the model’s answers. This presents a challenge for building trust in machine learning systems. We take inspiration from real-world situations where difficult questions are answered by considering opposing sides (see Irving et al., 2018). For multiple-choice QA examples, we build a dataset of single arguments for both a correct and incorrect answer option in a debate-style set-up as an initial step in training models to produce explanations for two candidate answers. We use long contexts—humans familiar with the context write convincing explanations for pre-selected correct and incorrect answers, and we test if those explanations allow humans who have not read the full context to more accurately determine the correct answer. We do not find that explanations in our set-up improve human accuracy, but a baseline condition shows that providing human-selected text snippets does improve accuracy. We use these findings to suggest ways of improving the debate set up for future data collection efforts.

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MuSiQue: Multihop Questions via Single-hop Question Composition
Harsh Trivedi | Niranjan Balasubramanian | Tushar Khot | Ashish Sabharwal
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 10

Multihop reasoning remains an elusive goal as existing multihop benchmarks are known to be largely solvable via shortcuts. Can we create a question answering (QA) dataset that, by construction, requires proper multihop reasoning? To this end, we introduce a bottom–up approach that systematically selects composable pairs of single-hop questions that are connected, that is, where one reasoning step critically relies on information from another. This bottom–up methodology lets us explore a vast space of questions and add stringent filters as well as other mechanisms targeting connected reasoning. It provides fine-grained control over the construction process and the properties of the resulting k-hop questions. We use this methodology to create MuSiQue-Ans, a new multihop QA dataset with 25K 2–4 hop questions. Relative to existing datasets, MuSiQue-Ans is more difficult overall (3× increase in human–machine gap), and harder to cheat via disconnected reasoning (e.g., a single-hop model has a 30-point drop in F1). We further add unanswerable contrast questions to produce a more stringent dataset, MuSiQue-Full. We hope our datasets will help the NLP community develop models that perform genuine multihop reasoning.1

2021

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Summarize-then-Answer: Generating Concise Explanations for Multi-hop Reading Comprehension
Naoya Inoue | Harsh Trivedi | Steven Sinha | Niranjan Balasubramanian | Kentaro Inui
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

How can we generate concise explanations for multi-hop Reading Comprehension (RC)? The current strategies of identifying supporting sentences can be seen as an extractive question-focused summarization of the input text. However, these extractive explanations are not necessarily concise i.e. not minimally sufficient for answering a question. Instead, we advocate for an abstractive approach, where we propose to generate a question-focused, abstractive summary of input paragraphs and then feed it to an RC system. Given a limited amount of human-annotated abstractive explanations, we train the abstractive explainer in a semi-supervised manner, where we start from the supervised model and then train it further through trial and error maximizing a conciseness-promoted reward function. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed abstractive explainer can generate more compact explanations than an extractive explainer with limited supervision (only 2k instances) while maintaining sufficiency.

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IrEne-viz: Visualizing Energy Consumption of Transformer Models
Yash Kumar Lal | Reetu Singh | Harsh Trivedi | Qingqing Cao | Aruna Balasubramanian | Niranjan Balasubramanian
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

IrEne is an energy prediction system that accurately predicts the interpretable inference energy consumption of a wide range of Transformer-based NLP models. We present the IrEne-viz tool, an online platform for visualizing and exploring energy consumption of various Transformer-based models easily. Additionally, we release a public API that can be used to access granular information about energy consumption of transformer models and their components. The live demo is available at http://stonybrooknlp.github.io/irene/demo/.

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What Ingredients Make for an Effective Crowdsourcing Protocol for Difficult NLU Data Collection Tasks?
Nikita Nangia | Saku Sugawara | Harsh Trivedi | Alex Warstadt | Clara Vania | Samuel R. Bowman
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Crowdsourcing is widely used to create data for common natural language understanding tasks. Despite the importance of these datasets for measuring and refining model understanding of language, there has been little focus on the crowdsourcing methods used for collecting the datasets. In this paper, we compare the efficacy of interventions that have been proposed in prior work as ways of improving data quality. We use multiple-choice question answering as a testbed and run a randomized trial by assigning crowdworkers to write questions under one of four different data collection protocols. We find that asking workers to write explanations for their examples is an ineffective stand-alone strategy for boosting NLU example difficulty. However, we find that training crowdworkers, and then using an iterative process of collecting data, sending feedback, and qualifying workers based on expert judgments is an effective means of collecting challenging data. But using crowdsourced, instead of expert judgments, to qualify workers and send feedback does not prove to be effective. We observe that the data from the iterative protocol with expert assessments is more challenging by several measures. Notably, the human–model gap on the unanimous agreement portion of this data is, on average, twice as large as the gap for the baseline protocol data.

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IrEne: Interpretable Energy Prediction for Transformers
Qingqing Cao | Yash Kumar Lal | Harsh Trivedi | Aruna Balasubramanian | Niranjan Balasubramanian
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Existing software-based energy measurements of NLP models are not accurate because they do not consider the complex interactions between energy consumption and model execution. We present IrEne, an interpretable and extensible energy prediction system that accurately predicts the inference energy consumption of a wide range of Transformer-based NLP models. IrEne constructs a model tree graph that breaks down the NLP model into modules that are further broken down into low-level machine learning (ML) primitives. IrEne predicts the inference energy consumption of the ML primitives as a function of generalizable features and fine-grained runtime resource usage. IrEne then aggregates these low-level predictions recursively to predict the energy of each module and finally of the entire model. Experiments across multiple Transformer models show IrEne predicts inference energy consumption of transformer models with an error of under 7% compared to the ground truth. In contrast, existing energy models see an error of over 50%. We also show how IrEne can be used to conduct energy bottleneck analysis and to easily evaluate the energy impact of different architectural choices. We release the code and data at https://github.com/StonyBrookNLP/irene.

2020

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DeFormer: Decomposing Pre-trained Transformers for Faster Question Answering
Qingqing Cao | Harsh Trivedi | Aruna Balasubramanian | Niranjan Balasubramanian
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Transformer-based QA models use input-wide self-attention – i.e. across both the question and the input passage – at all layers, causing them to be slow and memory-intensive. It turns out that we can get by without input-wide self-attention at all layers, especially in the lower layers. We introduce DeFormer, a decomposed transformer, which substitutes the full self-attention with question-wide and passage-wide self-attentions in the lower layers. This allows for question-independent processing of the input text representations, which in turn enables pre-computing passage representations reducing runtime compute drastically. Furthermore, because DeFormer is largely similar to the original model, we can initialize DeFormer with the pre-training weights of a standard transformer, and directly fine-tune on the target QA dataset. We show DeFormer versions of BERT and XLNet can be used to speed up QA by over 4.3x and with simple distillation-based losses they incur only a 1% drop in accuracy. We open source the code at https://github.com/StonyBrookNLP/deformer.

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Is Multihop QA in DiRe Condition? Measuring and Reducing Disconnected Reasoning
Harsh Trivedi | Niranjan Balasubramanian | Tushar Khot | Ashish Sabharwal
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Has there been real progress in multi-hop question-answering? Models often exploit dataset artifacts to produce correct answers, without connecting information across multiple supporting facts. This limits our ability to measure true progress and defeats the purpose of building multi-hop QA datasets. We make three contributions towards addressing this. First, we formalize such undesirable behavior as disconnected reasoning across subsets of supporting facts. This allows developing a model-agnostic probe for measuring how much any model can cheat via disconnected reasoning. Second, using a notion of contrastive support sufficiency, we introduce an automatic transformation of existing datasets that reduces the amount of disconnected reasoning. Third, our experiments suggest that there hasn’t been much progress in multi-hop QA in the reading comprehension setting. For a recent large-scale model (XLNet), we show that only 18 points out of its answer F1 score of 72 on HotpotQA are obtained through multifact reasoning, roughly the same as that of a simpler RNN baseline. Our transformation substantially reduces disconnected reasoning (19 points in answer F1). It is complementary to adversarial approaches, yielding further reductions in conjunction.

2019

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Repurposing Entailment for Multi-Hop Question Answering Tasks
Harsh Trivedi | Heeyoung Kwon | Tushar Khot | Ashish Sabharwal | Niranjan Balasubramanian
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Question Answering (QA) naturally reduces to an entailment problem, namely, verifying whether some text entails the answer to a question. However, for multi-hop QA tasks, which require reasoning with multiple sentences, it remains unclear how best to utilize entailment models pre-trained on large scale datasets such as SNLI, which are based on sentence pairs. We introduce Multee, a general architecture that can effectively use entailment models for multi-hop QA tasks. Multee uses (i) a local module that helps locate important sentences, thereby avoiding distracting information, and (ii) a global module that aggregates information by effectively incorporating importance weights. Importantly, we show that both modules can use entailment functions pre-trained on a large scale NLI datasets. We evaluate performance on MultiRC and OpenBookQA, two multihop QA datasets. When using an entailment function pre-trained on NLI datasets, Multee outperforms QA models trained only on the target QA datasets and the OpenAI transformer models.