Learning to Contextually Aggregate Multi-Source Supervision for Sequence Labeling
Ouyu Lan | Xiao Huang | Bill Yuchen Lin | He Jiang | Liyuan Liu | Xiang Ren
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics
Sequence labeling is a fundamental task for a range of natural language processing problems. When used in practice, its performance is largely influenced by the annotation quality and quantity, and meanwhile, obtaining ground truth labels is often costly. In many cases, ground truth labels do not exist, but noisy annotations or annotations from different domains are accessible. In this paper, we propose a novel framework Consensus Network (ConNet) that can be trained on annotations from multiple sources (e.g., crowd annotation, cross-domain data). It learns individual representation for every source and dynamically aggregates source-specific knowledge by a context-aware attention module. Finally, it leads to a model reflecting the agreement (consensus) among multiple sources. We evaluate the proposed framework in two practical settings of multi-source learning: learning with crowd annotations and unsupervised cross-domain model adaptation. Extensive experimental results show that our model achieves significant improvements over existing methods in both settings. We also demonstrate that the method can apply to various tasks and cope with different encoders.
Eliciting Knowledge from Experts: Automatic Transcript Parsing for Cognitive Task Analysis
Junyi Du | He Jiang | Jiaming Shen | Xiang Ren
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics
Cognitive task analysis (CTA) is a type of analysis in applied psychology aimed at eliciting and representing the knowledge and thought processes of domain experts. In CTA, often heavy human labor is involved to parse the interview transcript into structured knowledge (e.g., flowchart for different actions). To reduce human efforts and scale the process, automated CTA transcript parsing is desirable. However, this task has unique challenges as (1) it requires the understanding of long-range context information in conversational text; and (2) the amount of labeled data is limited and indirect—i.e., context-aware, noisy, and low-resource. In this paper, we propose a weakly-supervised information extraction framework for automated CTA transcript parsing. We partition the parsing process into a sequence labeling task and a text span-pair relation extraction task, with distant supervision from human-curated protocol files. To model long-range context information for extracting sentence relations, neighbor sentences are involved as a part of input. Different types of models for capturing context dependency are then applied. We manually annotate real-world CTA transcripts to facilitate the evaluation of the parsing tasks.
- Xiang Ren 2
- Ouyu Lan 1
- Xiao Huang 1
- Bill Yuchen Lin 1
- Liyuan Liu 1
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