Cross-domain named entity recognition (NER) aims to borrow the entity information from the source domain to help the entity recognition in the target domain with limited labeled data. Despite the promising performance of existing approaches, most of them focus on reducing the discrepancy of token representation between source and target domains, while the transfer of the valuable label information is often not explicitly considered or even ignored. Therefore, we propose a novel autoregressive framework to advance cross-domain NER by first enhancing the relationship between labels and tokens and then further improving the transferability of label information. Specifically, we associate each label with an embedding vector, and for each token, we utilize a bidirectional LSTM (Bi-LSTM) to encode the labels of its previous tokens for modeling internal context information and label dependence. Afterward, we propose a Bi-Attention module that merges the token representation from a pre-trained model and the label features from the Bi-LSTM as the label-aware information, which is concatenated to the token representation to facilitate cross-domain NER. In doing so, label information contained in the embedding vectors can be effectively transferred to the target domain, and Bi-LSTM can further model the label relationship among different domains by pre-train and then fine-tune setting. Experimental results on several datasets confirm the effectiveness of our model, where our model achieves significant improvements over the state of the arts.
Neural topic models (NTMs) apply deep neural networks to topic modelling. Despite their success, NTMs generally ignore two important aspects: (1) only document-level word count information is utilized for the training, while more fine-grained sentence-level information is ignored, and (2) external semantic knowledge regarding documents, sentences and words are not exploited for the training. To address these issues, we propose a variational autoencoder (VAE) NTM model that jointly reconstructs the sentence and document word counts using combinations of bag-of-words (BoW) topical embeddings and pre-trained semantic embeddings. The pre-trained embeddings are first transformed into a common latent topical space to align their semantics with the BoW embeddings. Our model also features hierarchical KL divergence to leverage embeddings of each document to regularize those of their sentences, paying more attention to semantically relevant sentences. Both quantitative and qualitative experiments have shown the efficacy of our model in 1) lowering the reconstruction errors at both the sentence and document levels, and 2) discovering more coherent topics from real-world datasets.
Aspect terms extraction and opinion terms extraction are two key problems of fine-grained Aspect Based Sentiment Analysis (ABSA). The aspect-opinion pairs can provide a global profile about a product or service for consumers and opinion mining systems. However, traditional methods can not directly output aspect-opinion pairs without given aspect terms or opinion terms. Although some recent co-extraction methods have been proposed to extract both terms jointly, they fail to extract them as pairs. To this end, this paper proposes an end-to-end method to solve the task of Pair-wise Aspect and Opinion Terms Extraction (PAOTE). Furthermore, this paper treats the problem from a perspective of joint term and relation extraction rather than under the sequence tagging formulation performed in most prior works. We propose a multi-task learning framework based on shared spans, where the terms are extracted under the supervision of span boundaries. Meanwhile, the pair-wise relations are jointly identified using the span representations. Extensive experiments show that our model consistently outperforms state-of-the-art methods.
Short texts such as tweets often contain insufficient word co-occurrence information for training conventional topic models. To deal with the insufficiency, we propose a generative model that aggregates short texts into clusters by leveraging the associated meta information. Our model can generate more interpretable topics as well as document clusters. We develop an effective Gibbs sampling algorithm favoured by the fully local conjugacy in the model. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our model achieves better performance in terms of document clustering and topic coherence.
We introduce a new task of modeling the role and function for on-line resource citations in scientific literature. By categorizing the on-line resources and analyzing the purpose of resource citations in scientific texts, it can greatly help resource search and recommendation systems to better understand and manage the scientific resources. For this novel task, we are the first to create an annotation scheme, which models the different granularity of information from a hierarchical perspective. And we construct a dataset SciRes, which includes 3,088 manually annotated resource contexts. In this paper, we propose a possible solution by using a multi-task framework to build the scientific resource classifier (SciResCLF) for jointly recognizing the role and function types. Then we use the classification results to help a scientific resource recommendation (SciResREC) task. Experiments show that our model achieves the best results on both the classification task and the recommendation task. The SciRes dataset is released for future research.