Henrique Lopes Cardoso

Also published as: Henrique Lopes Cardoso


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Detecting Loanwords in Emakhuwa: An Extremely Low-Resource Bantu Language Exhibiting Significant Borrowing from Portuguese
Felermino Dario Mario Ali | Henrique Lopes Cardoso | Rui Sousa-Silva
Proceedings of the 2024 Joint International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC-COLING 2024)

The accurate identification of loanwords within a given text holds significant potential as a valuable tool for addressing data augmentation and mitigating data sparsity issues. Such identification can improve the performance of various natural language processing tasks, particularly in the context of low-resource languages that lack standardized spelling conventions.This research proposes a supervised method to identify loanwords in Emakhuwa, borrowed from Portuguese. Our methodology encompasses a two-fold approach. Firstly, we employ traditional machine learning algorithms incorporating handcrafted features, including language-specific and similarity-based features. We build upon prior studies to extract similarity features and propose utilizing two external resources: a Sequence-to-Sequence model and a dictionary. This innovative approach allows us to identify loanwords solely by analyzing the target word without prior knowledge about its donor counterpart. Furthermore, we fine-tune the pre-trained CANINE model for the downstream task of loanword detection, which culminates in the impressive achievement of the F1-score of 93%. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first of its kind focusing on Emakhuwa, and the preliminary results are promising as they pave the way to further advancements.

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Fostering the Ecosystem of Open Neural Encoders for Portuguese with Albertina PT* Family
Rodrigo Santos | João Rodrigues | Luís Gomes | João Ricardo Silva | António Branco | Henrique Lopes Cardoso | Tomás Freitas Osório | Bernardo Leite
Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Meeting of the Special Interest Group on Under-resourced Languages @ LREC-COLING 2024

To foster the neural encoding of Portuguese, this paper contributes foundation encoder models that represent an expansion of the still very scarce ecosystem of large language models specifically developed for this language that are fully open, in the sense that they are open source and openly distributed for free under an open license for any purpose, thus including research and commercial usages. Like most languages other than English, Portuguese is low-resourced in terms of these foundational language resources, there being the inaugural 900 million parameter Albertina and 335 million Bertimbau. Taking this couple of models as an inaugural set, we present the extension of the ecosystem of state-of-the-art open encoders for Portuguese with a larger, top performance-driven model with 1.5 billion parameters, and a smaller, efficiency-driven model with 100 million parameters. While achieving this primary goal, further results that are relevant for this ecosystem were obtained as well, namely new datasets for Portuguese based on the SuperGLUE benchmark, which we also distribute openly.

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Across the Atlantic: Distinguishing Between European and Brazilian Portuguese Dialects
David Preda | Tomás Osório | Henrique Lopes Cardoso
Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computational Processing of Portuguese - Vol. 1

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Network-based Approach for Stopwords Detection
Felermino D. M. A. Ali | Gabriel de Jesus | Henrique Lopes Cardoso | Sérgio Nunes | Rui Sousa-Silva
Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computational Processing of Portuguese - Vol. 2

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PORTULAN ExtraGLUE Datasets and Models: Kick-starting a Benchmark for the Neural Processing of Portuguese
Tomás Freitas Osório | Bernardo Leite | Henrique Lopes Cardoso | Luís Gomes | João Rodrigues | Rodrigo Santos | António Branco
Proceedings of the 17th Workshop on Building and Using Comparable Corpora (BUCC) @ LREC-COLING 2024

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PTPARL-V: Portuguese Parliamentary Debates for Voting Behaviour Study
Afonso Sousa | Henrique Lopes Cardoso
Proceedings of the IV Workshop on Creating, Analysing, and Increasing Accessibility of Parliamentary Corpora (ParlaCLARIN) @ LREC-COLING 2024

We present a new dataset, , that provides valuable insight for advancing discourse analysis of parliamentary debates in Portuguese. This is achieved by processing the open-access information available at the official Portuguese Parliament website and scraping the information from the debate minutes’ PDFs contained therein. Our dataset includes interventions from 547 different deputies of all major Portuguese parties, from 736 legislative initiatives spanning five legislatures from 2005 to 2021. We present a statistical analysis of the dataset compared to other publicly available Portuguese parliamentary debate corpora. Finally, we provide baseline performance analysis for voting behaviour classification.


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Annotating Arguments in a Corpus of Opinion Articles
Gil Rocha | Luís Trigo | Henrique Lopes Cardoso | Rui Sousa-Silva | Paula Carvalho | Bruno Martins | Miguel Won
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Interest in argument mining has resulted in an increasing number of argument annotated corpora. However, most focus on English texts with explicit argumentative discourse markers, such as persuasive essays or legal documents. Conversely, we report on the first extensive and consolidated Portuguese argument annotation project focused on opinion articles. We briefly describe the annotation guidelines based on a multi-layered process and analyze the manual annotations produced, highlighting the main challenges of this textual genre. We then conduct a comprehensive inter-annotator agreement analysis, including argumentative discourse units, their classes and relations, and resulting graphs. This analysis reveals that each of these aspects tackles very different kinds of challenges. We observe differences in annotator profiles, motivating our aim of producing a non-aggregated corpus containing the insights of every annotator. We note that the interpretation and identification of token-level arguments is challenging; nevertheless, tasks that focus on higher-level components of the argument structure can obtain considerable agreement. We lay down perspectives on corpus usage, exploiting its multi-faceted nature.


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Team Fernando-Pessa at SemEval-2019 Task 4: Back to Basics in Hyperpartisan News Detection
André Cruz | Gil Rocha | Rui Sousa-Silva | Henrique Lopes Cardoso
Proceedings of the 13th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

This paper describes our submission to the SemEval 2019 Hyperpartisan News Detection task. Our system aims for a linguistics-based document classification from a minimal set of interpretable features, while maintaining good performance. To this goal, we follow a feature-based approach and perform several experiments with different machine learning classifiers. Additionally, we explore feature importances and distributions among the two classes. On the main task, our model achieved an accuracy of 71.7%, which was improved after the task’s end to 72.9%. We also participate on the meta-learning sub-task, for classifying documents with the binary classifications of all submitted systems as input, achieving an accuracy of 89.9%.

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On Sentence Representations for Propaganda Detection: From Handcrafted Features to Word Embeddings
André Ferreira Cruz | Gil Rocha | Henrique Lopes Cardoso
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Internet Freedom: Censorship, Disinformation, and Propaganda

Bias is ubiquitous in most online sources of natural language, from news media to social networks. Given the steady shift in news consumption behavior from traditional outlets to online sources, the automatic detection of propaganda, in which information is shaped to purposefully foster a predetermined agenda, is an increasingly crucial task. To this goal, we explore the task of sentence-level propaganda detection, and experiment with both handcrafted features and learned dense semantic representations. We also experiment with random undersampling of the majority class (non-propaganda) to curb the influence of class distribution on the system’s performance, leading to marked improvements on the minority class (propaganda). Our best performing system uses pre-trained ELMo word embeddings, followed by a bidirectional LSTM and an attention layer. We have submitted a 5-model ensemble of our best performing system to the NLP4IF shared task on sentence-level propaganda detection (team LIACC), achieving rank 10 among 25 participants, with 59.5 F1-score.

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Complaint Analysis and Classification for Economic and Food Safety
João Filgueiras | Luís Barbosa | Gil Rocha | Henrique Lopes Cardoso | Luís Paulo Reis | João Pedro Machado | Ana Maria Oliveira
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Economics and Natural Language Processing

Governmental institutions are employing artificial intelligence techniques to deal with their specific problems and exploit their huge amounts of both structured and unstructured information. In particular, natural language processing and machine learning techniques are being used to process citizen feedback. In this paper, we report on the use of such techniques for analyzing and classifying complaints, in the context of the Portuguese Economic and Food Safety Authority. Grounded in its operational process, we address three different classification problems: target economic activity, implied infraction severity level, and institutional competence. We show promising results obtained using feature-based approaches and traditional classifiers, with accuracy scores above 70%, and analyze the shortcomings of our current results and avenues for further improvement, taking into account the intended use of our classifiers in helping human officers to cope with thousands of yearly complaints.

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A Comparative Analysis of Unsupervised Language Adaptation Methods
Gil Rocha | Henrique Lopes Cardoso
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Deep Learning Approaches for Low-Resource NLP (DeepLo 2019)

To overcome the lack of annotated resources in less-resourced languages, recent approaches have been proposed to perform unsupervised language adaptation. In this paper, we explore three recent proposals: Adversarial Training, Sentence Encoder Alignment and Shared-Private Architecture. We highlight the differences of these approaches in terms of unlabeled data requirements and capability to overcome additional domain shift in the data. A comparative analysis in two different tasks is conducted, namely on Sentiment Classification and Natural Language Inference. We show that adversarial training methods are more suitable when the source and target language datasets contain other variations in content besides the language shift. Otherwise, sentence encoder alignment methods are very effective and can yield scores on the target language that are close to the source language scores.


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Cross-Lingual Argumentative Relation Identification: from English to Portuguese
Gil Rocha | Christian Stab | Henrique Lopes Cardoso | Iryna Gurevych
Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Argument Mining

Argument mining aims to detect and identify argument structures from textual resources. In this paper, we aim to address the task of argumentative relation identification, a subtask of argument mining, for which several approaches have been recently proposed in a monolingual setting. To overcome the lack of annotated resources in less-resourced languages, we present the first attempt to address this subtask in a cross-lingual setting. We compare two standard strategies for cross-language learning, namely: projection and direct-transfer. Experimental results show that by using unsupervised language adaptation the proposed approaches perform at a competitive level when compared with fully-supervised in-language learning settings.