We introduce the AIP-Tohoku grammatical error correction (GEC) system for the BEA-2019 shared task in Track 1 (Restricted Track) and Track 2 (Unrestricted Track) using the same system architecture. Our system comprises two key components: error generation and sentence-level error detection. In particular, GEC with sentence-level grammatical error detection is a novel and versatile approach, and we experimentally demonstrate that it significantly improves the precision of the base model. Our system is ranked 9th in Track 1 and 2nd in Track 2.
In grammatical error correction (GEC), automatically evaluating system outputs requires gold-standard references, which must be created manually and thus tend to be both expensive and limited in coverage. To address this problem, a reference-less approach has recently emerged; however, previous reference-less metrics that only consider the criterion of grammaticality, have not worked as well as reference-based metrics. This study explores the potential of extending a prior grammaticality-based method to establish a reference-less evaluation method for GEC systems. Further, we empirically show that a reference-less metric that combines fluency and meaning preservation with grammaticality provides a better estimate of manual scores than that of commonly used reference-based metrics. To our knowledge, this is the first study that provides empirical evidence that a reference-less metric can replace reference-based metrics in evaluating GEC systems.