Hongwei Wang


2023

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Generating User-Engaging News Headlines
Pengshan Cai | Kaiqiang Song | Sangwoo Cho | Hongwei Wang | Xiaoyang Wang | Hong Yu | Fei Liu | Dong Yu
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

The potential choices for news article headlines are enormous, and finding the right balance between conveying the essential message and capturing the reader’s attention is key to effective headlining. However, presenting the same news headline to all readers is a suboptimal strategy, because it does not take into account the different preferences and interests of diverse readers, who may be confused about why a particular article has been recommended to them and do not see a clear connection between their interests and the recommended article. In this paper, we present a novel framework that addresses these challenges by incorporating user profiling to generate personalized headlines, and a combination of automated and human evaluation methods to determine user preference for personalized headlines. Our framework utilizes a learnable relevance function to assign personalized signature phrases to users based on their reading histories, which are then used to personalize headline generation. Through extensive evaluation, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed framework in generating personalized headlines that meet the needs of a diverse audience. Our framework has the potential to improve the efficacy of news recommendations and facilitate creation of personalized content.

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Going Beyond Sentence Embeddings: A Token-Level Matching Algorithm for Calculating Semantic Textual Similarity
Hongwei Wang | Dong Yu
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Semantic Textual Similarity (STS) measures the degree to which the underlying semantics of paired sentences are equivalent. State-of-the-art methods for STS task use language models to encode sentences into embeddings. However, these embeddings are limited in representing semantics because they mix all the semantic information together in fixed-length vectors, which are difficult to recover and lack explainability. This paper presents a token-level matching inference algorithm, which can be applied on top of any language model to improve its performance on STS task. Our method calculates pairwise token-level similarity and token matching scores, and then aggregates them with pretrained token weights to produce sentence similarity. Experimental results on seven STS datasets show that our method improves the performance of almost all language models, with up to 12.7% gain in Spearman’s correlation. We also demonstrate that our method is highly explainable and computationally efficient.

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A Class-Rebalancing Self-Training Framework for Distantly-Supervised Named Entity Recognition
Qi Li | Tingyu Xie | Peng Peng | Hongwei Wang | Gaoang Wang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Distant supervision reduces the reliance on human annotation in the named entity recognition tasks. The class-level imbalanced distant annotation is a realistic and unexplored problem, and the popular method of self-training can not handle class-level imbalanced learning. More importantly, self-training is dominated by the high-performance class in selecting candidates, and deteriorates the low-performance class with the bias of generated pseudo label. To address the class-level imbalance performance, we propose a class-rebalancing self-training framework for improving the distantly-supervised named entity recognition. In candidate selection, a class-wise flexible threshold is designed to fully explore other classes besides the high-performance class. In label generation, injecting the distant label, a hybrid pseudo label is adopted to provide straight semantic information for the low-performance class. Experiments on five flat and two nested datasets show that our model achieves state-of-the-art results. We also conduct extensive research to analyze the effectiveness of the flexible threshold and the hybrid pseudo label.

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On the Dimensionality of Sentence Embeddings
Hongwei Wang | Hongming Zhang | Dong Yu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Learning sentence embeddings is a fundamental problem in natural language processing. While existing research primarily focuses on enhancing the quality of sentence embeddings, the exploration of sentence embedding dimensions is limited. Here we present a comprehensive and empirical analysis of the dimensionality of sentence embeddings. First, we demonstrate that the optimal dimension of sentence embeddings is usually smaller than the default value. Subsequently, to compress the dimension of sentence embeddings with minimum performance degradation, we identify two components contributing to the overall performance loss: the encoder’s performance loss and the pooler’s performance loss. Therefore, we propose a two-step training method for sentence representation learning models, wherein the encoder and the pooler are optimized separately to mitigate the overall performance loss in low-dimension scenarios. Experimental results on seven STS tasks and seven sentence classification tasks demonstrate that our method significantly improves the performance of low-dimensional sentence embeddings.

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Unsupervised Multi-document Summarization with Holistic Inference
Haopeng Zhang | Sangwoo Cho | Kaiqiang Song | Xiaoyang Wang | Hongwei Wang | Jiawei Zhang | Dong Yu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: IJCNLP-AACL 2023 (Findings)

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Empirical Study of Zero-Shot NER with ChatGPT
Tingyu Xie | Qi Li | Jian Zhang | Yan Zhang | Zuozhu Liu | Hongwei Wang
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Large language models (LLMs) exhibited powerful capability in various natural language processing tasks. This work focuses on exploring LLM performance on zero-shot information extraction, with a focus on the ChatGPT and named entity recognition (NER) task. Inspired by the remarkable reasoning capability of LLM on symbolic and arithmetic reasoning, we adapt the prevalent reasoning methods to NER and propose reasoning strategies tailored for NER. First, we explore a decomposed question-answering paradigm by breaking down the NER task into simpler subproblems by labels. Second, we propose syntactic augmentation to stimulate the model’s intermediate thinking in two ways: syntactic prompting, which encourages the model to analyze the syntactic structure itself, and tool augmentation, which provides the model with the syntactic information generated by a parsing tool. Besides, we adapt self-consistency to NER by proposing a two-stage majority voting strategy, which first votes for the most consistent mentions, then the most consistent types. The proposed methods achieve remarkable improvements for zero-shot NER across seven benchmarks, including Chinese and English datasets, and on both domain-specific and general-domain scenarios. In addition, we present a comprehensive analysis of the error types with suggestions for optimization directions. We also verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods on the few-shot setting and other LLMs.

2022

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RESIN-11: Schema-guided Event Prediction for 11 Newsworthy Scenarios
Xinya Du | Zixuan Zhang | Sha Li | Pengfei Yu | Hongwei Wang | Tuan Lai | Xudong Lin | Ziqi Wang | Iris Liu | Ben Zhou | Haoyang Wen | Manling Li | Darryl Hannan | Jie Lei | Hyounghun Kim | Rotem Dror | Haoyu Wang | Michael Regan | Qi Zeng | Qing Lyu | Charles Yu | Carl Edwards | Xiaomeng Jin | Yizhu Jiao | Ghazaleh Kazeminejad | Zhenhailong Wang | Chris Callison-Burch | Mohit Bansal | Carl Vondrick | Jiawei Han | Dan Roth | Shih-Fu Chang | Martha Palmer | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies: System Demonstrations

We introduce RESIN-11, a new schema-guided event extraction&prediction framework that can be applied to a large variety of newsworthy scenarios. The framework consists of two parts: (1) an open-domain end-to-end multimedia multilingual information extraction system with weak-supervision and zero-shot learningbased techniques. (2) schema matching and schema-guided event prediction based on our curated schema library. We build a demo website based on our dockerized system and schema library publicly available for installation (https://github.com/RESIN-KAIROS/RESIN-11). We also include a video demonstrating the system.

2021

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EventKE: Event-Enhanced Knowledge Graph Embedding
Zixuan Zhang | Hongwei Wang | Han Zhao | Hanghang Tong | Heng Ji
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Relations in most of the traditional knowledge graphs (KGs) only reflect static and factual connections, but fail to represent the dynamic activities and state changes about entities. In this paper, we emphasize the importance of incorporating events in KG representation learning, and propose an event-enhanced KG embedding model EventKE. Specifically, given the original KG, we first incorporate event nodes by building a heterogeneous network, where entity nodes and event nodes are distributed on the two sides of the network inter-connected by event argument links. We then use entity-entity relations from the original KG and event-event temporal links to inner-connect entity and event nodes respectively. We design a novel and effective attention-based message passing method, which is conducted on entity-entity, event-entity, and event-event relations to fuse the event information into KG embeddings. Experimental results on real-world datasets demonstrate that events can greatly improve the quality of the KG embeddings on multiple downstream tasks.