Huimin Zeng


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Evidence-Driven Retrieval Augmented Response Generation for Online Misinformation
Zhenrui Yue | Huimin Zeng | Yimeng Lu | Lanyu Shang | Yang Zhang | Dong Wang
Proceedings of the 2024 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies (Volume 1: Long Papers)

The proliferation of online misinformation has posed significant threats to public interest. While numerous online users actively participate in the combat against misinformation, many of such responses can be characterized by the lack of politeness and supporting facts. As a solution, text generation approaches are proposed to automatically produce counter-misinformation responses. Nevertheless, existing methods are often trained end-to-end without leveraging external knowledge, resulting in subpar text quality and excessively repetitive responses. In this paper, we propose retrieval augmented response generation for online misinformation (RARG), which collects supporting evidence from scientific sources and generates counter-misinformation responses based on the evidences. In particular, our RARG consists of two stages: (1) evidence collection, where we design a retrieval pipeline to retrieve and rerank evidence documents using a database comprising over 1M academic articles; (2) response generation, in which we align large language models (LLMs) to generate evidence-based responses via reinforcement learning from human feedback (RLHF). We propose a reward function to maximize the utilization of the retrieved evidence while maintaining the quality of the generated text, which yields polite and factual responses that clearly refutes misinformation. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our method, we study the case of COVID-19 and perform extensive experiments with both in- and cross-domain datasets, where RARG consistently outperforms baselines by generating high-quality counter-misinformation responses.

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Open-Vocabulary Federated Learning with Multimodal Prototyping
Huimin Zeng | Zhenrui Yue | Dong Wang
Proceedings of the 2024 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Existing federated learning (FL) studies usuallyassume the training label space and test labelspace are identical. However, in real-world applications, this assumption is too ideal to betrue. A new user could come up with queriesthat involve data from unseen classes, and suchopen-vocabulary queries would directly defectsuch FL systems. Therefore, in this work, weexplicitly focus on the under-explored openvocabulary challenge in FL. That is, for a newuser, the global server shall understand her/hisquery that involves arbitrary unknown classes.To address this problem, we leverage the pretrained vision-language models (VLMs). Inparticular, we present a novel adaptation framework tailored for VLMs in the context of FL,named as Federated Multimodal Prototyping(Fed-MP). Fed-MP adaptively aggregates thelocal model weights based on light-weightclient residuals, and makes predictions basedon a novel multimodal prototyping mechanism.Fed-MP exploits the knowledge learned fromthe seen classes, and robustifies the adaptedVLM to unseen categories. Our empirical evaluation on various datasets validates the effectiveness of Fed-MP.


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MetaAdapt: Domain Adaptive Few-Shot Misinformation Detection via Meta Learning
Zhenrui Yue | Huimin Zeng | Yang Zhang | Lanyu Shang | Dong Wang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

With emerging topics (e.g., COVID-19) on social media as a source for the spreading misinformation, overcoming the distributional shifts between the original training domain (i.e., source domain) and such target domains remains a non-trivial task for misinformation detection. This presents an elusive challenge for early-stage misinformation detection, where a good amount of data and annotations from the target domain is not available for training. To address the data scarcity issue, we propose MetaAdapt, a meta learning based approach for domain adaptive few-shot misinformation detection. MetaAdapt leverages limited target examples to provide feedback and guide the knowledge transfer from the source to the target domain (i.e., learn to adapt). In particular, we train the initial model with multiple source tasks and compute their similarity scores to the meta task. Based on the similarity scores, we rescale the meta gradients to adaptively learn from the source tasks. As such, MetaAdapt can learn how to adapt the misinformation detection model and exploit the source data for improved performance in the target domain. To demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of our method, we perform extensive experiments to compare MetaAdapt with state-of-the-art baselines and large language models (LLMs) such as LLaMA, where MetaAdapt achieves better performance in domain adaptive few-shot misinformation detection with substantially reduced parameters on real-world datasets.

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Zero- and Few-Shot Event Detection via Prompt-Based Meta Learning
Zhenrui Yue | Huimin Zeng | Mengfei Lan | Heng Ji | Dong Wang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

With emerging online topics as a source for numerous new events, detecting unseen / rare event types presents an elusive challenge for existing event detection methods, where only limited data access is provided for training. To address the data scarcity problem in event detection, we propose MetaEvent, a meta learning-based framework for zero- and few-shot event detection. Specifically, we sample training tasks from existing event types and perform meta training to search for optimal parameters that quickly adapt to unseen tasks. In our framework, we propose to use the cloze-based prompt and a trigger-aware soft verbalizer to efficiently project output to unseen event types. Moreover, we design a contrastive meta objective based on maximum mean discrepancy (MMD) to learn class-separating features. As such, the proposed MetaEvent can perform zero-shot event detection by mapping features to event types without any prior knowledge. In our experiments, we demonstrate the effectiveness of MetaEvent in both zero-shot and few-shot scenarios, where the proposed method achieves state-of-the-art performance in extensive experiments on benchmark datasets FewEvent and MAVEN.


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QA Domain Adaptation using Hidden Space Augmentation and Self-Supervised Contrastive Adaptation
Zhenrui Yue | Huimin Zeng | Bernhard Kratzwald | Stefan Feuerriegel | Dong Wang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Question answering (QA) has recently shown impressive results for answering questions from customized domains. Yet, a common challenge is to adapt QA models to an unseen target domain. In this paper, we propose a novel self-supervised framework called QADA for QA domain adaptation. QADA introduces a novel data augmentation pipeline used to augment training QA samples. Different from existing methods, we enrich the samples via hidden space augmentation. For questions, we introduce multi-hop synonyms and sample augmented token embeddings with Dirichlet distributions. For contexts, we develop an augmentation method which learns to drop context spans via a custom attentive sampling strategy. Additionally, contrastive learning is integrated in the proposed self-supervised adaptation framework QADA. Unlike existing approaches, we generate pseudo labels and propose to train the model via a novel attention-based contrastive adaptation method. The attention weights are used to build informative features for discrepancy estimation that helps the QA model separate answers and generalize across source and target domains. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first to leverage hidden space augmentation and attention-based contrastive adaptation for self-supervised domain adaptation in QA. Our evaluation shows that QADA achieves considerable improvements on multiple target datasets over state-of-the-art baselines in QA domain adaptation.

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Domain Adaptation for Question Answering via Question Classification
Zhenrui Yue | Huimin Zeng | Ziyi Kou | Lanyu Shang | Dong Wang
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Question answering (QA) has demonstrated impressive progress in answering questions from customized domains. Nevertheless, domain adaptation remains one of the most elusive challenges for QA systems, especially when QA systems are trained in a source domain but deployed in a different target domain. In this work, we investigate the potential benefits of question classification for QA domain adaptation. We propose a novel framework: Question Classification for Question Answering (QC4QA). Specifically, a question classifier is adopted to assign question classes to both the source and target data. Then, we perform joint training in a self-supervised fashion via pseudo-labeling. For optimization, inter-domain discrepancy between the source and target domain is reduced via maximum mean discrepancy (MMD) distance. We additionally minimize intra-class discrepancy among QA samples of the same question class for fine-grained adaptation performance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work in QA domain adaptation to leverage question classification with self-supervised adaptation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed QC4QA with consistent improvements against the state-of-the-art baselines on multiple datasets.