Recently, finetuning a pretrained language model to capture the similarity between sentence embeddings has shown the state-of-the-art performance on the semantic textual similarity (STS) task. However, the absence of an interpretation method for the sentence similarity makes it difficult to explain the model output. In this work, we explicitly describe the sentence distance as the weighted sum of contextualized token distances on the basis of a transportation problem, and then present the optimal transport-based distance measure, named RCMD; it identifies and leverages semantically-aligned token pairs. In the end, we propose CLRCMD, a contrastive learning framework that optimizes RCMD of sentence pairs, which enhances the quality of sentence similarity and their interpretation. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our learning framework outperforms other baselines on both STS and interpretable-STS benchmarks, indicating that it computes effective sentence similarity and also provides interpretation consistent with human judgement.
Topic taxonomies display hierarchical topic structures of a text corpus and provide topical knowledge to enhance various NLP applications. To dynamically incorporate new topic information, several recent studies have tried to expand (or complete) a topic taxonomy by inserting emerging topics identified in a set of new documents. However, existing methods focus only on frequent terms in documents and the local topic-subtopic relations in a taxonomy, which leads to limited topic term coverage and fails to model the global taxonomy structure. In this work, we propose a novel framework for topic taxonomy expansion, named TopicExpan, which directly generates topic-related terms belonging to new topics. Specifically, TopicExpan leverages the hierarchical relation structure surrounding a new topic and the textual content of an input document for topic term generation. This approach encourages newly-inserted topics to further cover important but less frequent terms as well as to keep their relation consistency within the taxonomy. Experimental results on two real-world text corpora show that TopicExpan significantly outperforms other baseline methods in terms of the quality of output taxonomies.
Sentence summarization shortens given texts while maintaining core contents of the texts. Unsupervised approaches have been studied to summarize texts without ground-truth summaries. However, recent unsupervised models are extractive, which remove words from texts and thus they are less flexible than abstractive summarization. In this work, we devise an abstractive model based on reinforcement learning without ground-truth summaries. We formulate the unsupervised summarization based on the Markov decision process with rewards representing the summary quality. To further enhance the summary quality, we develop a multi-summary learning mechanism that generates multiple summaries with varying lengths for a given text, while making the summaries mutually enhance each other. Experimental results show that the proposed model substantially outperforms both abstractive and extractive models, yet frequently generating new words not contained in input texts.
Recent studies on neural networks with pre-trained weights (i.e., BERT) have mainly focused on a low-dimensional subspace, where the embedding vectors computed from input words (or their contexts) are located. In this work, we propose a new approach, called OoMMix, to finding and regularizing the remainder of the space, referred to as out-of-manifold, which cannot be accessed through the words. Specifically, we synthesize the out-of-manifold embeddings based on two embeddings obtained from actually-observed words, to utilize them for fine-tuning the network. A discriminator is trained to detect whether an input embedding is located inside the manifold or not, and simultaneously, a generator is optimized to produce new embeddings that can be easily identified as out-of-manifold by the discriminator. These two modules successfully collaborate in a unified and end-to-end manner for regularizing the out-of-manifold. Our extensive evaluation on various text classification benchmarks demonstrates the effectiveness of our approach, as well as its good compatibility with existing data augmentation techniques which aim to enhance the manifold.
We release large-scale datasets of users’ comments in two languages, English and Korean, for aspect-level sentiment analysis in automotive domain. The datasets consist of 58,000+ commentaspect pairs, which are the largest compared to existing datasets. In addition, this work covers new language (i.e., Korean) along with English for aspect-level sentiment analysis. We build the datasets from automotive domain to enable users (e.g., marketers in automotive companies) to analyze the voice of customers on automobiles. We also provide baseline performances for future work by evaluating recent models on the released datasets.
The main goal of this paper is to develop out-of-domain (OOD) detection for dialog systems. We propose to use only in-domain (IND) sentences to build a generative adversarial network (GAN) of which the discriminator generates low scores for OOD sentences. To improve basic GANs, we apply feature matching loss in the discriminator, use domain-category analysis as an additional task in the discriminator, and remove the biases in the generator. Thereby, we reduce the huge effort of collecting OOD sentences for training OOD detection. For evaluation, we experimented OOD detection on a multi-domain dialog system. The experimental results showed the proposed method was most accurate compared to the existing methods.
Preprocessing is a preliminary step in many fields including IR and NLP. The effect of basic preprocessing settings on English for text summarization is well-studied. However, there is no such effort found for the Urdu language (with the best of our knowledge). In this study, we analyze the effect of basic preprocessing settings for single-document text summarization for Urdu, on a benchmark corpus using various experiments. The analysis is performed using the state-of-the-art algorithms for extractive summarization and the effect of stopword removal, lemmatization, and stemming is analyzed. Results showed that these pre-processing settings improve the results.