Hyeongdon Moon


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Cross Encoding as Augmentation: Towards Effective Educational Text Classification
Hyun Seung Lee | Seungtaek Choi | Yunsung Lee | Hyeongdon Moon | Shinhyeok Oh | Myeongho Jeong | Hyojun Go | Christian Wallraven
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Text classification in education, usually called auto-tagging, is the automated process of assigning relevant tags to educational content, such as questions and textbooks. However, auto-tagging suffers from a data scarcity problem, which stems from two major challenges: 1) it possesses a large tag space and 2) it is multi-label. Though a retrieval approach is reportedly good at low-resource scenarios, there have been fewer efforts to directly address the data scarcity problem. To mitigate these issues, here we propose a novel retrieval approach CEAA that provides effective learning in educational text classification. Our main contributions are as follows: 1) we leverage transfer learning from question-answering datasets, and 2) we propose a simple but effective data augmentation method introducing cross-encoder style texts to a bi-encoder architecture for more efficient inference. An extensive set of experiments shows that our proposed method is effective in multi-label scenarios and low-resource tags compared to state-of-the-art models.

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Evaluation of Question Generation Needs More References
Shinhyeok Oh | Hyojun Go | Hyeongdon Moon | Yunsung Lee | Myeongho Jeong | Hyun Seung Lee | Seungtaek Choi
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Question generation (QG) is the task of generating a valid and fluent question based on a given context and the target answer. According to various purposes, even given the same context, instructors can ask questions about different concepts, and even the same concept can be written in different ways. However, the evaluation for QG usually depends on single reference-based similarity metrics, such as n-gram-based metric or learned metric, which is not sufficient to fully evaluate the potential of QG methods. To this end, we propose to paraphrase the reference question for a more robust QG evaluation. Using large language models such as GPT-3, we created semantically and syntactically diverse questions, then adopt the simple aggregation of the popular evaluation metrics as the final scores. Through our experiments, we found that using multiple (pseudo) references is more effective for QG evaluation while showing a higher correlation with human evaluations than evaluation with a single reference.


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Evaluating the Knowledge Dependency of Questions
Hyeongdon Moon | Yoonseok Yang | Hangyeol Yu | Seunghyun Lee | Myeongho Jeong | Juneyoung Park | Jamin Shin | Minsam Kim | Seungtaek Choi
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

The automatic generation of Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) has the potential to reduce the time educators spend on student assessment significantly. However, existing evaluation metrics for MCQ generation, such as BLEU, ROUGE, and METEOR, focus on the n-gram based similarity of the generated MCQ to the gold sample in the dataset and disregard their educational value. They fail to evaluate the MCQ’s ability to assess the student’s knowledge of the corresponding target fact. To tackle this issue, we propose a novel automatic evaluation metric, coined Knowledge Dependent Answerability (KDA), which measures the MCQ’s answerability given knowledge of the target fact. Specifically, we first show how to measure KDA based on student responses from a human survey. Then, we propose two automatic evaluation metrics, KDA_disc and KDA_cont, that approximate KDA by leveraging pre-trained language models to imitate students’ problem-solving behavior. Through our human studies, we show that KDA_disc and KDA_soft have strong correlations with both (1) KDA and (2) usability in an actual classroom setting, labeled by experts. Furthermore, when combined with n-gram based similarity metrics, KDA_disc and KDA_cont are shown to have a strong predictive power for various expert-labeled MCQ quality measures.

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Dialogue Summaries as Dialogue States (DS2), Template-Guided Summarization for Few-shot Dialogue State Tracking
Jamin Shin | Hangyeol Yu | Hyeongdon Moon | Andrea Madotto | Juneyoung Park
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Annotating task-oriented dialogues is notorious for the expensive and difficult data collection process. Few-shot dialogue state tracking (DST) is a realistic solution to this problem. In this paper, we hypothesize that dialogue summaries are essentially unstructured dialogue states; hence, we propose to reformulate dialogue state tracking as a dialogue summarization problem. To elaborate, we train a text-to-text language model with synthetic template-based dialogue summaries, generated by a set of rules from the dialogue states. Then, the dialogue states can be recovered by inversely applying the summary generation rules. We empirically show that our method DS2 outperforms previous works on few-shot DST in MultiWoZ 2.0 and 2.1, in both cross-domain and multi-domain settings. Our method also exhibits vast speedup during both training and inference as it can generate all states at once. Finally, based on our analysis, we discover that the naturalness of the summary templates plays a key role for successful training.