Hyounghun Kim


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On the Limits of Evaluating Embodied Agent Model Generalization Using Validation Sets
Hyounghun Kim | Aishwarya Padmakumar | Di Jin | Mohit Bansal | Dilek Hakkani-Tur
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Insights from Negative Results in NLP

Natural language guided embodied task completion is a challenging problem since it requires understanding natural language instructions, aligning them with egocentric visual observations, and choosing appropriate actions to execute in the environment to produce desired changes. We experiment with augmenting a transformer model for this task with modules that effectively utilize a wider field of view and learn to choose whether the next step requires a navigation or manipulation action. We observed that the proposed modules resulted in improved, and in fact state-of-the-art performance on an unseen validation set of a popular benchmark dataset, ALFRED. However, our best model selected using the unseen validation set underperforms on the unseen test split of ALFRED, indicating that performance on the unseen validation set may not in itself be a sufficient indicator of whether model improvements generalize to unseen test sets. We highlight this result as we believe it may be a wider phenomenon in machine learning tasks but primarily noticeable only in benchmarks that limit evaluations on test splits, and highlights the need to modify benchmark design to better account for variance in model performance.

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CoSIm: Commonsense Reasoning for Counterfactual Scene Imagination
Hyounghun Kim | Abhay Zala | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

As humans, we can modify our assumptions about a scene by imagining alternative objects or concepts in our minds. For example, we can easily anticipate the implications of the sun being overcast by rain clouds (e.g., the street will get wet) and accordingly prepare for that. In this paper, we introduce a new dataset called Commonsense Reasoning for Counterfactual Scene Imagination (CoSIm) which is designed to evaluate the ability of AI systems to reason about scene change imagination. To be specific, in this multimodal task/dataset, models are given an image and an initial question-response pair about the image. Next, a counterfactual imagined scene change (in textual form) is applied, and the model has to predict the new response to the initial question based on this scene change. We collect 3.5K high-quality and challenging data instances, with each instance consisting of an image, a commonsense question with a response, a description of a counterfactual change, a new response to the question, and three distractor responses. Our dataset contains various complex scene change types (such as object addition/removal/state change, event description, environment change, etc.) that require models to imagine many different scenarios and reason about the changed scenes. We present a baseline model based on a vision-language Transformer (i.e., LXMERT) and ablation studies. Through human evaluation, we demonstrate a large human-model performance gap, suggesting room for promising future work on this challenging, counterfactual multimodal task.

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RESIN-11: Schema-guided Event Prediction for 11 Newsworthy Scenarios
Xinya Du | Zixuan Zhang | Sha Li | Pengfei Yu | Hongwei Wang | Tuan Lai | Xudong Lin | Ziqi Wang | Iris Liu | Ben Zhou | Haoyang Wen | Manling Li | Darryl Hannan | Jie Lei | Hyounghun Kim | Rotem Dror | Haoyu Wang | Michael Regan | Qi Zeng | Qing Lyu | Charles Yu | Carl Edwards | Xiaomeng Jin | Yizhu Jiao | Ghazaleh Kazeminejad | Zhenhailong Wang | Chris Callison-Burch | Mohit Bansal | Carl Vondrick | Jiawei Han | Dan Roth | Shih-Fu Chang | Martha Palmer | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies: System Demonstrations

We introduce RESIN-11, a new schema-guided event extraction&prediction framework that can be applied to a large variety of newsworthy scenarios. The framework consists of two parts: (1) an open-domain end-to-end multimedia multilingual information extraction system with weak-supervision and zero-shot learningbased techniques. (2) schema matching and schema-guided event prediction based on our curated schema library. We build a demo website based on our dockerized system and schema library publicly available for installation (https://github.com/RESIN-KAIROS/RESIN-11). We also include a video demonstrating the system.


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NDH-Full: Learning and Evaluating Navigational Agents on Full-Length Dialogue
Hyounghun Kim | Jialu Li | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Communication between human and mobile agents is getting increasingly important as such agents are widely deployed in our daily lives. Vision-and-Dialogue Navigation is one of the tasks that evaluate the agent’s ability to interact with humans for assistance and navigate based on natural language responses. In this paper, we explore the Navigation from Dialogue History (NDH) task, which is based on the Cooperative Vision-and-Dialogue Navigation (CVDN) dataset, and present a state-of-the-art model which is built upon Vision-Language transformers. However, despite achieving competitive performance, we find that the agent in the NDH task is not evaluated appropriately by the primary metric – Goal Progress. By analyzing the performance mismatch between Goal Progress and other metrics (e.g., normalized Dynamic Time Warping) from our state-of-the-art model, we show that NDH’s sub-path based task setup (i.e., navigating partial trajectory based on its correspondent subset of the full dialogue) does not provide the agent with enough supervision signal towards the goal region. Therefore, we propose a new task setup called NDH-Full which takes the full dialogue and the whole navigation path as one instance. We present a strong baseline model and show initial results on this new task. We further describe several approaches that we try, in order to improve the model performance (based on curriculum learning, pre-training, and data-augmentation), suggesting potential useful training methods on this new NDH-Full task.

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Continuous Language Generative Flow
Zineng Tang | Shiyue Zhang | Hyounghun Kim | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Recent years have witnessed various types of generative models for natural language generation (NLG), especially RNNs or transformer based sequence-to-sequence models, as well as variational autoencoder (VAE) and generative adversarial network (GAN) based models. However, flow-based generative models, which achieve strong performance in image generation due to their invertibility and exact density estimation properties, have been less explored for NLG. In this paper, we propose a flow-based language generation model by adapting previous flow generative models to language generation via continuous input embeddings, adapted affine coupling structures, and a novel architecture for autoregressive text generation. We also apply our framework to Sequence-to-Sequence generation, including text- and video-based Question Generation (QG) and Neural Machine Translation (NMT), and data augmentation for Question Answering (QA). We use our language flow model to provide extra input features for QG and NMT, which achieves improvements over the strong QG baselines on SQuAD and TVQA and NMT baseline on WMT16. We also augment QA data with new context by injecting noise to the latent features of the language flow and show this augmentation leads to a large performance improvement from strong baselines on SQuAD and TVQA.


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Dense-Caption Matching and Frame-Selection Gating for Temporal Localization in VideoQA
Hyounghun Kim | Zineng Tang | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Videos convey rich information. Dynamic spatio-temporal relationships between people/objects, and diverse multimodal events are present in a video clip. Hence, it is important to develop automated models that can accurately extract such information from videos. Answering questions on videos is one of the tasks which can evaluate such AI abilities. In this paper, we propose a video question answering model which effectively integrates multi-modal input sources and finds the temporally relevant information to answer questions. Specifically, we first employ dense image captions to help identify objects and their detailed salient regions and actions, and hence give the model useful extra information (in explicit textual format to allow easier matching) for answering questions. Moreover, our model is also comprised of dual-level attention (word/object and frame level), multi-head self/cross-integration for different sources (video and dense captions), and gates which pass more relevant information to the classifier. Finally, we also cast the frame selection problem as a multi-label classification task and introduce two loss functions, In-andOut Frame Score Margin (IOFSM) and Balanced Binary Cross-Entropy (BBCE), to better supervise the model with human importance annotations. We evaluate our model on the challenging TVQA dataset, where each of our model components provides significant gains, and our overall model outperforms the state-of-the-art by a large margin (74.09% versus 70.52%). We also present several word, object, and frame level visualization studies.

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ArraMon: A Joint Navigation-Assembly Instruction Interpretation Task in Dynamic Environments
Hyounghun Kim | Abhaysinh Zala | Graham Burri | Hao Tan | Mohit Bansal
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

For embodied agents, navigation is an important ability but not an isolated goal. Agents are also expected to perform specific tasks after reaching the target location, such as picking up objects and assembling them into a particular arrangement. We combine Vision-andLanguage Navigation, assembling of collected objects, and object referring expression comprehension, to create a novel joint navigation-and-assembly task, named ARRAMON. During this task, the agent (similar to a PokeMON GO player) is asked to find and collect different target objects one-by-one by navigating based on natural language (English) instructions in a complex, realistic outdoor environment, but then also ARRAnge the collected objects part-by-part in an egocentric grid-layout environment. To support this task, we implement a 3D dynamic environment simulator and collect a dataset with human-written navigation and assembling instructions, and the corresponding ground truth trajectories. We also filter the collected instructions via a verification stage, leading to a total of 7.7K task instances (30.8K instructions and paths). We present results for several baseline models (integrated and biased) and metrics (nDTW, CTC, rPOD, and PTC), and the large model-human performance gap demonstrates that our task is challenging and presents a wide scope for future work.


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Improving Visual Question Answering by Referring to Generated Paragraph Captions
Hyounghun Kim | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Paragraph-style image captions describe diverse aspects of an image as opposed to the more common single-sentence captions that only provide an abstract description of the image. These paragraph captions can hence contain substantial information of the image for tasks such as visual question answering. Moreover, this textual information is complementary with visual information present in the image because it can discuss both more abstract concepts and more explicit, intermediate symbolic information about objects, events, and scenes that can directly be matched with the textual question and copied into the textual answer (i.e., via easier modality match). Hence, we propose a combined Visual and Textual Question Answering (VTQA) model which takes as input a paragraph caption as well as the corresponding image, and answers the given question based on both inputs. In our model, the inputs are fused to extract related information by cross-attention (early fusion), then fused again in the form of consensus (late fusion), and finally expected answers are given an extra score to enhance the chance of selection (later fusion). Empirical results show that paragraph captions, even when automatically generated (via an RL-based encoder-decoder model), help correctly answer more visual questions. Overall, our joint model, when trained on the Visual Genome dataset, significantly improves the VQA performance over a strong baseline model.