Hyunji Hayley Park


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Expanding Universal Dependencies for Polysynthetic Languages: A Case of St. Lawrence Island Yupik
Hyunji Hayley Park | Lane Schwartz | Francis Tyers
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Indigenous Languages of the Americas

This paper describes the development of the first Universal Dependencies (UD) treebank for St. Lawrence Island Yupik, an endangered language spoken in the Bering Strait region. While the UD guidelines provided a general framework for our annotations, language-specific decisions were made necessary by the rich morphology of the polysynthetic language. Most notably, we annotated a corpus at the morpheme level as well as the word level. The morpheme level annotation was conducted using an existing morphological analyzer and manual disambiguation. By comparing the two resulting annotation schemes, we argue that morpheme-level annotation is essential for polysynthetic languages like St. Lawrence Island Yupik. Word-level annotation results in degenerate trees for some Yupik sentences and often fails to capture syntactic relations that can be manifested at the morpheme level. Dependency parsing experiments provide further support for morpheme-level annotation. Implications for UD annotation of other polysynthetic languages are discussed.

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Morphology Matters: A Multilingual Language Modeling Analysis
Hyunji Hayley Park | Katherine J. Zhang | Coleman Haley | Kenneth Steimel | Han Liu | Lane Schwartz
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 9

Prior studies in multilingual language modeling (e.g., Cotterell et al., 2018; Mielke et al., 2019) disagree on whether or not inflectional morphology makes languages harder to model. We attempt to resolve the disagreement and extend those studies. We compile a larger corpus of 145 Bible translations in 92 languages and a larger number of typological features.1 We fill in missing typological data for several languages and consider corpus-based measures of morphological complexity in addition to expert-produced typological features. We find that several morphological measures are significantly associated with higher surprisal when LSTM models are trained with BPE-segmented data. We also investigate linguistically motivated subword segmentation strategies like Morfessor and Finite-State Transducers (FSTs) and find that these segmentation strategies yield better performance and reduce the impact of a language’s morphology on language modeling.


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Improved Finite-State Morphological Analysis for St. Lawrence Island Yupik Using Paradigm Function Morphology
Emily Chen | Hyunji Hayley Park | Lane Schwartz
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

St. Lawrence Island Yupik is an endangered polysynthetic language of the Bering Strait region. While conducting linguistic fieldwork between 2016 and 2019, we observed substantial support within the Yupik community for language revitalization and for resource development to support Yupik education. To that end, Chen & Schwartz (2018) implemented a finite-state morphological analyzer as a critical enabling technology for use in Yupik language education and technology. Chen & Schwartz (2018) reported a morphological analysis coverage rate of approximately 75% on a dataset of 60K Yupik tokens, leaving considerable room for improvement. In this work, we present a re-implementation of the Chen & Schwartz (2018) finite-state morphological analyzer for St. Lawrence Island Yupik that incorporates new linguistic insights; in particular, in this implementation we make use of the Paradigm Function Morphology (PFM) theory of morphology. We evaluate this new PFM-based morphological analyzer, and demonstrate that it consistently outperforms the existing analyzer of Chen & Schwartz (2018) with respect to accuracy and coverage rate across multiple datasets.