Hyunji Lee


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Improving Probability-based Prompt Selection Through Unified Evaluation and Analysis
Sohee Yang | Jonghyeon Kim | Joel Jang | Seonghyeon Ye | Hyunji Lee | Minjoon Seo
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 12

Previous work in prompt engineering for large language models has introduced different gradient-free probability-based prompt selection methods that aim to choose the optimal prompt among the candidates for a given task but have failed to provide a comprehensive and fair comparison between each other. In this paper, we propose a unified framework to interpret and evaluate the existing probability-based prompt selection methods by performing extensive experiments on 13 common and diverse NLP tasks. We find that each of the existing methods can be interpreted as some variant of the method that maximizes mutual information between the input and the predicted output (MI). Utilizing this finding, we develop several other combinatorial variants of MI and increase the effectiveness of the oracle prompt selection method from 87.79% to 94.98%, measured as the ratio of the performance of the selected prompt to that of the optimal oracle prompt. Furthermore, considering that all the methods rely on the output probability distribution of the model that might be biased, we propose a novel calibration method called Calibration by Marginalization (CBM) that is orthogonal to the existing methods and helps increase the prompt selection effectiveness of the best method to 96.85%, achieving 99.44% of the oracle prompt F1 without calibration.1


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Nonparametric Decoding for Generative Retrieval
Hyunji Lee | JaeYoung Kim | Hoyeon Chang | Hanseok Oh | Sohee Yang | Vladimir Karpukhin | Yi Lu | Minjoon Seo
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

The generative retrieval model depends solely on the information encoded in its model parameters without external memory, its information capacity is limited and fixed. To overcome the limitation, we propose Nonparametric Decoding (Np Decoding) which can be applied to existing generative retrieval models. Np Decoding uses nonparametric contextualized vocab embeddings (external memory) rather than vanilla vocab embeddings as decoder vocab embeddings. By leveraging the contextualized vocab embeddings, the generative retrieval model is able to utilize both the parametric and nonparametric space. Evaluation over 9 datasets (8 single-hop and 1 multi-hop) in the document retrieval task shows that applying Np Decoding to generative retrieval models significantly improves the performance. We also show that Np Decoding is data- and parameter-efficient, and shows high performance in the zero-shot setting.


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Generative Multi-hop Retrieval
Hyunji Lee | Sohee Yang | Hanseok Oh | Minjoon Seo
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

A common practice for text retrieval is to use an encoder to map the documents and the query to a common vector space and perform a nearest neighbor search (NNS); multi-hop retrieval also often adopts the same paradigm, usually with a modification of iteratively reformulating the query vector so that it can retrieve different documents at each hop. However, such a bi-encoder approach has limitations in multi-hop settings; (1) the reformulated query gets longer as the number of hops increases, which further tightens the embedding bottleneck of the query vector, and (2) it is prone to error propagation. In this paper, we focus on alleviating these limitations in multi-hop settings by formulating the problem in a fully generative way. We propose an encoder-decoder model that performs multi-hop retrieval by simply generating the entire text sequences of the retrieval targets, which means the query and the documents interact in the language model’s parametric space rather than L2 or inner product space as in the bi-encoder approach. Our approach, Generative Multi-hop Retrieval (GMR), consistently achieves comparable or higher performance than bi-encoder models in five datasets while demonstrating superior GPU memory and storage footprint.


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Cost-effective End-to-end Information Extraction for Semi-structured Document Images
Wonseok Hwang | Hyunji Lee | Jinyeong Yim | Geewook Kim | Minjoon Seo
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

A real-world information extraction (IE) system for semi-structured document images often involves a long pipeline of multiple modules, whose complexity dramatically increases its development and maintenance cost. One can instead consider an end-to-end model that directly maps the input to the target output and simplify the entire process. However, such generation approach is known to lead to unstable performance if not designed carefully. Here we present our recent effort on transitioning from our existing pipeline-based IE system to an end-to-end system focusing on practical challenges that are associated with replacing and deploying the system in real, large-scale production. By carefully formulating document IE as a sequence generation task, we show that a single end-to-end IE system can be built and still achieve competent performance.