Ilia Kuznetsov


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Overview of PragTag-2023: Low-Resource Multi-Domain Pragmatic Tagging of Peer Reviews
Nils Dycke | Ilia Kuznetsov | Iryna Gurevych
Proceedings of the 10th Workshop on Argument Mining

Peer review is the key quality control mechanism in science. The core component of peer review are the review reports – argumentative texts where the reviewers evaluate the work and make suggestions to the authors. Reviewing is a demanding expert task prone to bias. An active line of research in NLP aims to support peer review via automatic analysis of review reports. This research meets two key challenges. First, NLP to date has focused on peer reviews from machine learning conferences. Yet, NLP models are prone to domain shift and might underperform when applied to reviews from a new research community. Second, while some venues make their reviewing processes public, peer reviewing data is generally hard to obtain and expensive to label. Approaches to low-data NLP processing for peer review remain under-investigated. Enabled by the recent release of open multi-domain corpora of peer reviews, the PragTag-2023 Shared Task explored the ways to increase domain robustness and address data scarcity in pragmatic tagging – a sentence tagging task where review statements are classified by their argumentative function. This paper describes the shared task, outlines the participating systems, and summarizes the results.

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CiteBench: A Benchmark for Scientific Citation Text Generation
Martin Funkquist | Ilia Kuznetsov | Yufang Hou | Iryna Gurevych
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Science progresses by building upon the prior body of knowledge documented in scientific publications. The acceleration of research makes it hard to stay up-to-date with the recent developments and to summarize the ever-growing body of prior work. To address this, the task of citation text generation aims to produce accurate textual summaries given a set of papers-to-cite and the citing paper context. Due to otherwise rare explicit anchoring of cited documents in the citing paper, citation text generation provides an excellent opportunity to study how humans aggregate and synthesize textual knowledge from sources. Yet, existing studies are based upon widely diverging task definitions, which makes it hard to study this task systematically. To address this challenge, we propose CiteBench: a benchmark for citation text generation that unifies multiple diverse datasets and enables standardized evaluation of citation text generation models across task designs and domains. Using the new benchmark, we investigate the performance of multiple strong baselines, test their transferability between the datasets, and deliver new insights into the task definition and evaluation to guide future research in citation text generation. We make the code for CiteBench publicly available at

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NLPeer: A Unified Resource for the Computational Study of Peer Review
Nils Dycke | Ilia Kuznetsov | Iryna Gurevych
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Peer review constitutes a core component of scholarly publishing; yet it demands substantial expertise and training, and is susceptible to errors and biases. Various applications of NLP for peer reviewing assistance aim to support reviewers in this complex process, but the lack of clearly licensed datasets and multi-domain corpora prevent the systematic study of NLP for peer review. To remedy this, we introduce NLPeer– the first ethically sourced multidomain corpus of more than 5k papers and 11k review reports from five different venues. In addition to the new datasets of paper drafts, camera-ready versions and peer reviews from the NLP community, we establish a unified data representation and augment previous peer review datasets to include parsed and structured paper representations, rich metadata and versioning information. We complement our resource with implementations and analysis of three reviewing assistance tasks, including a novel guided skimming task. Our work paves the path towards systematic, multi-faceted, evidence-based study of peer review in NLP and beyond. The data and code are publicly available.

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An Inclusive Notion of Text
Ilia Kuznetsov | Iryna Gurevych
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Natural language processing (NLP) researchers develop models of grammar, meaning and communication based on written text. Due to task and data differences, what is considered text can vary substantially across studies. A conceptual framework for systematically capturing these differences is lacking. We argue that clarity on the notion of text is crucial for reproducible and generalizable NLP. Towards that goal, we propose common terminology to discuss the production and transformation of textual data, and introduce a two-tier taxonomy of linguistic and non-linguistic elements that are available in textual sources and can be used in NLP modeling. We apply this taxonomy to survey existing work that extends the notion of text beyond the conservative language-centered view. We outline key desiderata and challenges of the emerging inclusive approach to text in NLP, and suggest community-level reporting as a crucial next step to consolidate the discussion.

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CARE: Collaborative AI-Assisted Reading Environment
Dennis Zyska | Nils Dycke | Jan Buchmann | Ilia Kuznetsov | Iryna Gurevych
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 3: System Demonstrations)

Recent years have seen impressive progress in AI-assisted writing, yet the developments in AI-assisted reading are lacking. We propose inline commentary as a natural vehicle for AI-based reading assistance, and present CARE: the first open integrated platform for the study of inline commentary and reading. CARE facilitates data collection for inline commentaries in a commonplace collaborative reading environment, and provides a framework for enhancing reading with NLP-based assistance, such as text classification, generation or question answering. The extensible behavioral logging allows unique insights into the reading and commenting behavior, and flexible configuration makes the platform easy to deploy in new scenarios. To evaluate CARE in action, we apply the platform in a user study dedicated to scholarly peer review. CARE facilitates the data collection and study of inline commentary in NLP, extrinsic evaluation of NLP assistance, and application prototyping. We invite the community to explore and build upon the open source implementation of CARE.Github Repository: Live Demo:


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Yes-Yes-Yes: Proactive Data Collection for ACL Rolling Review and Beyond
Nils Dycke | Ilia Kuznetsov | Iryna Gurevych
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

The shift towards publicly available text sources has enabled language processing at unprecedented scale, yet leaves under-serviced the domains where public and openly licensed data is scarce. Proactively collecting text data for research is a viable strategy to address this scarcity, but lacks systematic methodology taking into account the many ethical, legal and confidentiality-related aspects of data collection. Our work presents a case study on proactive data collection in peer review – a challenging and under-resourced NLP domain. We outline ethical and legal desiderata for proactive data collection and introduce “Yes-Yes-Yes”, the first donation-based peer reviewing data collection workflow that meets these requirements. We report on the implementation of Yes-Yes-Yes at ACL Rolling Review and empirically study the implications of proactive data collection for the dataset size and the biases induced by the donation behavior on the peer reviewing platform.

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Revise and Resubmit: An Intertextual Model of Text-based Collaboration in Peer Review
Ilia Kuznetsov | Jan Buchmann | Max Eichler | Iryna Gurevych
Computational Linguistics, Volume 48, Issue 4 - December 2022

Peer review is a key component of the publishing process in most fields of science. Increasing submission rates put a strain on reviewing quality and efficiency, motivating the development of applications to support the reviewing and editorial work. While existing NLP studies focus on the analysis of individual texts, editorial assistance often requires modeling interactions between pairs of texts—yet general frameworks and datasets to support this scenario are missing. Relationships between texts are the core object of the intertextuality theory—a family of approaches in literary studies not yet operationalized in NLP. Inspired by prior theoretical work, we propose the first intertextual model of text-based collaboration, which encompasses three major phenomena that make up a full iteration of the review–revise–and–resubmit cycle: pragmatic tagging, linking, and long-document version alignment. While peer review is used across the fields of science and publication formats, existing datasets solely focus on conference-style review in computer science. Addressing this, we instantiate our proposed model in the first annotated multidomain corpus in journal-style post-publication open peer review, and provide detailed insights into the practical aspects of intertextual annotation. Our resource is a major step toward multidomain, fine-grained applications of NLP in editorial support for peer review, and our intertextual framework paves the path for general-purpose modeling of text-based collaboration. We make our corpus, detailed annotation guidelines, and accompanying code publicly available.1


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A matter of framing: The impact of linguistic formalism on probing results
Ilia Kuznetsov | Iryna Gurevych
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Deep pre-trained contextualized encoders like BERT demonstrate remarkable performance on a range of downstream tasks. A recent line of research in probing investigates the linguistic knowledge implicitly learned by these models during pre-training. While most work in probing operates on the task level, linguistic tasks are rarely uniform and can be represented in a variety of formalisms. Any linguistics-based probing study thereby inevitably commits to the formalism used to annotate the underlying data. Can the choice of formalism affect probing results? To investigate, we conduct an in-depth cross-formalism layer probing study in role semantics. We find linguistically meaningful differences in the encoding of semantic role- and proto-role information by BERT depending on the formalism and demonstrate that layer probing can detect subtle differences between the implementations of the same linguistic formalism. Our results suggest that linguistic formalism is an important dimension in probing studies, along with the commonly used cross-task and cross-lingual experimental settings.

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LINSPECTOR: Multilingual Probing Tasks for Word Representations
Gözde Gül Şahin | Clara Vania | Ilia Kuznetsov | Iryna Gurevych
Computational Linguistics, Volume 46, Issue 2 - June 2020

Despite an ever-growing number of word representation models introduced for a large number of languages, there is a lack of a standardized technique to provide insights into what is captured by these models. Such insights would help the community to get an estimate of the downstream task performance, as well as to design more informed neural architectures, while avoiding extensive experimentation that requires substantial computational resources not all researchers have access to. A recent development in NLP is to use simple classification tasks, also called probing tasks, that test for a single linguistic feature such as part-of-speech. Existing studies mostly focus on exploring the linguistic information encoded by the continuous representations of English text. However, from a typological perspective the morphologically poor English is rather an outlier: The information encoded by the word order and function words in English is often stored on a subword, morphological level in other languages. To address this, we introduce 15 type-level probing tasks such as case marking, possession, word length, morphological tag count, and pseudoword identification for 24 languages. We present a reusable methodology for creation and evaluation of such tests in a multilingual setting, which is challenging because of a lack of resources, lower quality of tools, and differences among languages. We then present experiments on several diverse multilingual word embedding models, in which we relate the probing task performance for a diverse set of languages to a range of five classic NLP tasks: POS-tagging, dependency parsing, semantic role labeling, named entity recognition, and natural language inference. We find that a number of probing tests have significantly high positive correlation to the downstream tasks, especially for morphologically rich languages. We show that our tests can be used to explore word embeddings or black-box neural models for linguistic cues in a multilingual setting. We release the probing data sets and the evaluation suite LINSPECTOR with


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Does My Rebuttal Matter? Insights from a Major NLP Conference
Yang Gao | Steffen Eger | Ilia Kuznetsov | Iryna Gurevych | Yusuke Miyao
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Peer review is a core element of the scientific process, particularly in conference-centered fields such as ML and NLP. However, only few studies have evaluated its properties empirically. Aiming to fill this gap, we present a corpus that contains over 4k reviews and 1.2k author responses from ACL-2018. We quantitatively and qualitatively assess the corpus. This includes a pilot study on paper weaknesses given by reviewers and on quality of author responses. We then focus on the role of the rebuttal phase, and propose a novel task to predict after-rebuttal (i.e., final) scores from initial reviews and author responses. Although author responses do have a marginal (and statistically significant) influence on the final scores, especially for borderline papers, our results suggest that a reviewer’s final score is largely determined by her initial score and the distance to the other reviewers’ initial scores. In this context, we discuss the conformity bias inherent to peer reviewing, a bias that has largely been overlooked in previous research. We hope our analyses will help better assess the usefulness of the rebuttal phase in NLP conferences.


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From Text to Lexicon: Bridging the Gap between Word Embeddings and Lexical Resources
Ilia Kuznetsov | Iryna Gurevych
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Distributional word representations (often referred to as word embeddings) are omnipresent in modern NLP. Early work has focused on building representations for word types, and recent studies show that lemmatization and part of speech (POS) disambiguation of targets in isolation improve the performance of word embeddings on a range of downstream tasks. However, the reasons behind these improvements, the qualitative effects of these operations and the combined performance of lemmatized and POS disambiguated targets are less studied. This work aims to close this gap and puts previous findings into a general perspective. We examine the effect of lemmatization and POS typing on word embedding performance in a novel resource-based evaluation scenario, as well as on standard similarity benchmarks. We show that these two operations have complimentary qualitative and vocabulary-level effects and are best used in combination. We find that the improvement is more pronounced for verbs and show how lemmatization and POS typing implicitly target some of the verb-specific issues. We claim that the observed improvement is a result of better conceptual alignment between word embeddings and lexical resources, stressing the need for conceptually plausible modeling of word embedding targets.

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Corpus-Driven Thematic Hierarchy Induction
Ilia Kuznetsov | Iryna Gurevych
Proceedings of the 22nd Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning

Thematic role hierarchy is a widely used linguistic tool to describe interactions between semantic roles and their syntactic realizations. Despite decades of dedicated research and numerous thematic hierarchy suggestions in the literature, this concept has not been used in NLP so far due to incompatibility and limited scope of existing hierarchies. We introduce an empirical framework for thematic hierarchy induction and evaluate several role ranking strategies on English and German full-text corpus data. We hypothesize that global thematic hierarchy induction is feasible, that a hierarchy can be induced from just fractions of training data and that resulting hierarchies apply cross-lingually. We evaluate these assumptions empirically.


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Out-of-domain FrameNet Semantic Role Labeling
Silvana Hartmann | Ilia Kuznetsov | Teresa Martin | Iryna Gurevych
Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Volume 1, Long Papers

Domain dependence of NLP systems is one of the major obstacles to their application in large-scale text analysis, also restricting the applicability of FrameNet semantic role labeling (SRL) systems. Yet, current FrameNet SRL systems are still only evaluated on a single in-domain test set. For the first time, we study the domain dependence of FrameNet SRL on a wide range of benchmark sets. We create a novel test set for FrameNet SRL based on user-generated web text and find that the major bottleneck for out-of-domain FrameNet SRL is the frame identification step. To address this problem, we develop a simple, yet efficient system based on distributed word representations. Our system closely approaches the state-of-the-art in-domain while outperforming the best available frame identification system out-of-domain. We publish our system and test data for research purposes.

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Assessing SRL Frameworks with Automatic Training Data Expansion
Silvana Hartmann | Éva Mújdricza-Maydt | Ilia Kuznetsov | Iryna Gurevych | Anette Frank
Proceedings of the 11th Linguistic Annotation Workshop

We present the first experiment-based study that explicitly contrasts the three major semantic role labeling frameworks. As a prerequisite, we create a dataset labeled with parallel FrameNet-, PropBank-, and VerbNet-style labels for German. We train a state-of-the-art SRL tool for German for the different annotation styles and provide a comparative analysis across frameworks. We further explore the behavior of the frameworks with automatic training data generation. VerbNet provides larger semantic expressivity than PropBank, and we find that its generalization capacity approaches PropBank in SRL training, but it benefits less from training data expansion than the sparse-data affected FrameNet.

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EELECTION at SemEval-2017 Task 10: Ensemble of nEural Learners for kEyphrase ClassificaTION
Steffen Eger | Erik-Lân Do Dinh | Ilia Kuznetsov | Masoud Kiaeeha | Iryna Gurevych
Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2017)

This paper describes our approach to the SemEval 2017 Task 10: Extracting Keyphrases and Relations from Scientific Publications, specifically to Subtask (B): Classification of identified keyphrases. We explored three different deep learning approaches: a character-level convolutional neural network (CNN), a stacked learner with an MLP meta-classifier, and an attention based Bi-LSTM. From these approaches, we created an ensemble of differently hyper-parameterized systems, achieving a micro-F1-score of 0.63 on the test data. Our approach ranks 2nd (score of 1st placed system: 0.64) out of four according to this official score. However, we erroneously trained 2 out of 3 neural nets (the stacker and the CNN) on only roughly 15% of the full data, namely, the original development set. When trained on the full data (training+development), our ensemble has a micro-F1-score of 0.69. Our code is available from