Ilia Markov


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Improving Hate Speech Type and Target Detection with Hateful Metaphor Features
Jens Lemmens | Ilia Markov | Walter Daelemans
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on NLP for Internet Freedom: Censorship, Disinformation, and Propaganda

We study the usefulness of hateful metaphorsas features for the identification of the type and target of hate speech in Dutch Facebook comments. For this purpose, all hateful metaphors in the Dutch LiLaH corpus were annotated and interpreted in line with Conceptual Metaphor Theory and Critical Metaphor Analysis. We provide SVM and BERT/RoBERTa results, and investigate the effect of different metaphor information encoding methods on hate speech type and target detection accuracy. The results of the conducted experiments show that hateful metaphor features improve model performance for the both tasks. To our knowledge, it is the first time that the effectiveness of hateful metaphors as an information source for hatespeech classification is investigated.

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Improving Cross-Domain Hate Speech Detection by Reducing the False Positive Rate
Ilia Markov | Walter Daelemans
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on NLP for Internet Freedom: Censorship, Disinformation, and Propaganda

Hate speech detection is an actively growing field of research with a variety of recently proposed approaches that allowed to push the state-of-the-art results. One of the challenges of such automated approaches – namely recent deep learning models – is a risk of false positives (i.e., false accusations), which may lead to over-blocking or removal of harmless social media content in applications with little moderator intervention. We evaluate deep learning models both under in-domain and cross-domain hate speech detection conditions, and introduce an SVM approach that allows to significantly improve the state-of-the-art results when combined with the deep learning models through a simple majority-voting ensemble. The improvement is mainly due to a reduction of the false positive rate.

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Exploring Stylometric and Emotion-Based Features for Multilingual Cross-Domain Hate Speech Detection
Ilia Markov | Nikola Ljubešić | Darja Fišer | Walter Daelemans
Proceedings of the Eleventh Workshop on Computational Approaches to Subjectivity, Sentiment and Social Media Analysis

In this paper, we describe experiments designed to evaluate the impact of stylometric and emotion-based features on hate speech detection: the task of classifying textual content into hate or non-hate speech classes. Our experiments are conducted for three languages – English, Slovene, and Dutch – both in in-domain and cross-domain setups, and aim to investigate hate speech using features that model two linguistic phenomena: the writing style of hateful social media content operationalized as function word usage on the one hand, and emotion expression in hateful messages on the other hand. The results of experiments with features that model different combinations of these phenomena support our hypothesis that stylometric and emotion-based features are robust indicators of hate speech. Their contribution remains persistent with respect to domain and language variation. We show that the combination of features that model the targeted phenomena outperforms words and character n-gram features under cross-domain conditions, and provides a significant boost to deep learning models, which currently obtain the best results, when combined with them in an ensemble.


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A Deep Generative Approach to Native Language Identification
Ehsan Lotfi | Ilia Markov | Walter Daelemans
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Native language identification (NLI) – identifying the native language (L1) of a person based on his/her writing in the second language (L2) – is useful for a variety of purposes, including marketing, security, and educational applications. From a traditional machine learning perspective,NLI is usually framed as a multi-class classification task, where numerous designed features are combined in order to achieve the state-of-the-art results. We introduce a deep generative language modelling (LM) approach to NLI, which consists in fine-tuning a GPT-2 model separately on texts written by the authors with the same L1, and assigning a label to an unseen text based on the minimum LM loss with respect to one of these fine-tuned GPT-2 models. Our method outperforms traditional machine learning approaches and currently achieves the best results on the benchmark NLI datasets.

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Sarcasm Detection Using an Ensemble Approach
Jens Lemmens | Ben Burtenshaw | Ehsan Lotfi | Ilia Markov | Walter Daelemans
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Figurative Language Processing

We present an ensemble approach for the detection of sarcasm in Reddit and Twitter responses in the context of The Second Workshop on Figurative Language Processing held in conjunction with ACL 2020. The ensemble is trained on the predicted sarcasm probabilities of four component models and on additional features, such as the sentiment of the comment, its length, and source (Reddit or Twitter) in order to learn which of the component models is the most reliable for which input. The component models consist of an LSTM with hashtag and emoji representations; a CNN-LSTM with casing, stop word, punctuation, and sentiment representations; an MLP based on Infersent embeddings; and an SVM trained on stylometric and emotion-based features. All component models use the two conversational turns preceding the response as context, except for the SVM, which only uses features extracted from the response. The ensemble itself consists of an adaboost classifier with the decision tree algorithm as base estimator and yields F1-scores of 67% and 74% on the Reddit and Twitter test data, respectively.

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The LiLaH Emotion Lexicon of Croatian, Dutch and Slovene
Nikola Ljubešić | Ilia Markov | Darja Fišer | Walter Daelemans
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Computational Modeling of People's Opinions, Personality, and Emotion's in Social Media

In this paper, we present emotion lexicons of Croatian, Dutch and Slovene, based on manually corrected automatic translations of the English NRC Emotion lexicon. We evaluate the impact of the translation changes by measuring the change in supervised classification results of socially unacceptable utterances when lexicon information is used for feature construction. We further showcase the usage of the lexicons by calculating the difference in emotion distributions in texts containing and not containing socially unacceptable discourse, comparing them across four languages (English, Croatian, Dutch, Slovene) and two topics (migrants and LGBT). We show significant and consistent improvements in automatic classification across all languages and topics, as well as consistent (and expected) emotion distributions across all languages and topics, proving for the manually corrected lexicons to be a useful addition to the severely lacking area of emotion lexicons, the crucial resource for emotive analysis of text.


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INRIA at SemEval-2019 Task 9: Suggestion Mining Using SVM with Handcrafted Features
Ilia Markov | Eric Villemonte de la Clergerie
Proceedings of the 13th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

We present the INRIA approach to the suggestion mining task at SemEval 2019. The task consists of two subtasks: suggestion mining under single-domain (Subtask A) and cross-domain (Subtask B) settings. We used the Support Vector Machines algorithm trained on handcrafted features, function words, sentiment features, digits, and verbs for Subtask A, and handcrafted features for Subtask B. Our best run archived a F1-score of 51.18% on Subtask A, and ranked in the top ten of the submissions for Subtask B with 73.30% F1-score.

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Anglicized Words and Misspelled Cognates in Native Language Identification
Ilia Markov | Vivi Nastase | Carlo Strapparava
Proceedings of the Fourteenth Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications

In this paper, we present experiments that estimate the impact of specific lexical choices of people writing in a second language (L2). In particular, we look at misspelled words that indicate lexical uncertainty on the part of the author, and separate them into three categories: misspelled cognates, “L2-ed” (in our case, anglicized) words, and all other spelling errors. We test the assumption that such errors contain clues about the native language of an essay’s author through the task of native language identification. The results of the experiments show that the information brought by each of these categories is complementary. We also note that while the distribution of such features changes with the proficiency level of the writer, their contribution towards native language identification remains significant at all levels.


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Punctuation as Native Language Interference
Ilia Markov | Vivi Nastase | Carlo Strapparava
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

In this paper, we describe experiments designed to explore and evaluate the impact of punctuation marks on the task of native language identification. Punctuation is specific to each language, and is part of the indicators that overtly represent the manner in which each language organizes and conveys information. Our experiments are organized in various set-ups: the usual multi-class classification for individual languages, also considering classification by language groups, across different proficiency levels, topics and even cross-corpus. The results support our hypothesis that punctuation marks are persistent and robust indicators of the native language of the author, which do not diminish in influence even when a high proficiency level in a non-native language is achieved.

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The Role of Emotions in Native Language Identification
Ilia Markov | Vivi Nastase | Carlo Strapparava | Grigori Sidorov
Proceedings of the 9th Workshop on Computational Approaches to Subjectivity, Sentiment and Social Media Analysis

We explore the hypothesis that emotion is one of the dimensions of language that surfaces from the native language into a second language. To check the role of emotions in native language identification (NLI), we model emotion information through polarity and emotion load features, and use document representations using these features to classify the native language of the author. The results indicate that emotion is relevant for NLI, even for high proficiency levels and across topics.


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Discriminating between Similar Languages Using a Combination of Typed and Untyped Character N-grams and Words
Helena Gomez | Ilia Markov | Jorge Baptista | Grigori Sidorov | David Pinto
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on NLP for Similar Languages, Varieties and Dialects (VarDial)

This paper presents the cic_ualg’s system that took part in the Discriminating between Similar Languages (DSL) shared task, held at the VarDial 2017 Workshop. This year’s task aims at identifying 14 languages across 6 language groups using a corpus of excerpts of journalistic texts. Two classification approaches were compared: a single-step (all languages) approach and a two-step (language group and then languages within the group) approach. Features exploited include lexical features (unigrams of words) and character n-grams. Besides traditional (untyped) character n-grams, we introduce typed character n-grams in the DSL task. Experiments were carried out with different feature representation methods (binary and raw term frequency), frequency threshold values, and machine-learning algorithms – Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Multinomial Naive Bayes (MNB). Our best run in the DSL task achieved 91.46% accuracy.

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CIC-FBK Approach to Native Language Identification
Ilia Markov | Lingzhen Chen | Carlo Strapparava | Grigori Sidorov
Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications

We present the CIC-FBK system, which took part in the Native Language Identification (NLI) Shared Task 2017. Our approach combines features commonly used in previous NLI research, i.e., word n-grams, lemma n-grams, part-of-speech n-grams, and function words, with recently introduced character n-grams from misspelled words, and features that are novel in this task, such as typed character n-grams, and syntactic n-grams of words and of syntactic relation tags. We use log-entropy weighting scheme and perform classification using the Support Vector Machines (SVM) algorithm. Our system achieved 0.8808 macro-averaged F1-score and shared the 1st rank in the NLI Shared Task 2017 scoring.