LM-BFF (CITATION) achieves significant few-shot performance by using auto-generated prompts and adding demonstrations similar to an input example. To improve the approach of LM-BFF, this paper proposes LM-BFF-MS—better few-shot fine-tuning of language models with multiple soft demonstrations by making its further extensions, which include 1) prompts with multiple demonstrations based on automatic generation of multiple label words; and 2) soft demonstration memory which consists of multiple sequences of globally shared word embeddings for a similar context. Experiments conducted on eight NLP tasks show that LM-BFF-MS leads to improvements over LM-BFF on five tasks, particularly achieving 94.0 and 90.4 on SST-2 and MRPC, respectively.
This study proposes Semantic-Infused SElective Graph Reasoning (SISER) for fact verification, which newly presents semantic-level graph reasoning and injects its reasoning-enhanced representation into other types of graph-based and sequence-based reasoning methods. SISER combines three reasoning types: 1) semantic-level graph reasoning, which uses a semantic graph from evidence sentences, whose nodes are elements of a triple – <Subject, Verb, Object>, 2) “semantic-infused” sentence-level “selective” graph reasoning, which combine semantic-level and sentence-level representations and perform graph reasoning in a selective manner using the node selection mechanism, and 3) sequence reasoning, which concatenates all evidence sentences and performs attention-based reasoning. Experiment results on a large-scale dataset for Fact Extraction and VERification (FEVER) show that SISER outperforms the previous graph-based approaches and achieves state-of-the-art performance.
While pre-trained language models play a vital role in modern language processing tasks, but not every language can benefit from them. Most existing research on pre-trained language models focuses primarily on widely-used languages such as English, Chinese, and Indo-European languages. Additionally, such schemes usually require extensive computational resources alongside a large amount of data, which is infeasible for less-widely used languages. We aim to address this research niche by building a language model that understands the linguistic phenomena in the target language which can be trained with low-resources. In this paper, we discuss Korean language modeling, specifically methods for language representation and pre-training methods. With our Korean-specific language representation, we are able to build more powerful language models for Korean understanding, even with fewer resources. The paper proposes chunk-wise reconstruction of the Korean language based on a widely used transformer architecture and bidirectional language representation. We also introduce morphological features such as Part-of-Speech (PoS) into the language understanding by leveraging such information during the pre-training. Our experiment results prove that the proposed methods improve the model performance of the investigated Korean language understanding tasks.
GPT-3 shows remarkable in-context learning ability of large-scale language models (LMs) trained on hundreds of billion scale data. Here we address some remaining issues less reported by the GPT-3 paper, such as a non-English LM, the performances of different sized models, and the effect of recently introduced prompt optimization on in-context learning. To achieve this, we introduce HyperCLOVA, a Korean variant of 82B GPT-3 trained on a Korean-centric corpus of 560B tokens. Enhanced by our Korean-specific tokenization, HyperCLOVA with our training configuration shows state-of-the-art in-context zero-shot and few-shot learning performances on various downstream tasks in Korean. Also, we show the performance benefits of prompt-based learning and demonstrate how it can be integrated into the prompt engineering pipeline. Then we discuss the possibility of materializing the No Code AI paradigm by providing AI prototyping capabilities to non-experts of ML by introducing HyperCLOVA studio, an interactive prompt engineering interface. Lastly, we demonstrate the potential of our methods with three successful in-house applications.