A bottleneck to developing Semantic Parsing (SP) models is the need for a large volume of human-labeled training data. Given the complexity and cost of human annotation for SP, labeled data is often scarce, particularly in multilingual settings. Large Language Models (LLMs) excel at SP given only a few examples, however LLMs are unsuitable for runtime systems which require low latency. In this work, we propose CLASP, a simple method to improve low-resource SP for moderate-sized models: we generate synthetic data from AlexaTM 20B to augment the training set for a model 40x smaller (500M parameters). We evaluate on two datasets in low-resource settings: English PIZZA, containing either 348 or 16 real examples, and mTOP cross-lingual zero-shot, where training data is available only in English, and the model must generalize to four new languages. On both datasets, we show significant improvements over strong baseline methods.
Speech disfluencies are prevalent in spontaneous speech. The rising popularity of voice assistants presents a growing need to handle naturally occurring disfluencies. Semantic parsing is a key component for understanding user utterances in voice assistants, yet most semantic parsing research to date focuses on written text. In this paper, we investigate semantic parsing of disfluent speech with the ATIS dataset. We find that a state-of-the-art semantic parser does not seamlessly handle disfluencies. We experiment with adding real and synthetic disfluencies at training time and find that adding synthetic disfluencies not only improves model performance by up to 39% but can also outperform adding real disfluencies in the ATIS dataset.
End-to-end neural data-to-text (D2T) generation has recently emerged as an alternative to pipeline-based architectures. However, it has faced challenges generalizing to new domains and generating semantically consistent text. In this work, we present DataTuner, a neural, end-to-end data-to-text generation system that makes minimal assumptions about the data representation and target domain. We take a two-stage generation-reranking approach, combining a fine-tuned language model with a semantic fidelity classifier. Each component is learnt end-toe-nd without needing dataset-specific heuristics, entity delexicalization, or post-processing. We show that DataTuner achieves state of the art results on automated metrics across four major D2T datasets (LDC2017T10, WebNLG, ViGGO, and Cleaned E2E), with fluency assessed by human annotators as nearing or exceeding the human-written reference texts. Our generated text has better semantic fidelity than the state of the art on these datasets. We further demonstrate that our model-based semantic fidelity scorer is a better assessment tool compared to traditional heuristic-based measures of semantic accuracy.
The current most popular method for automatic Natural Language Generation (NLG) evaluation is comparing generated text with human-written reference sentences using a metrics system, which has drawbacks around reliability and scalability. We draw inspiration from second language (L2) assessment and extract a set of linguistic features to predict human judgments of sentence naturalness. Our experiment using a small dataset showed that the feature-based approach yields promising results, with the added potential of providing interpretability into the source of the problems.