Isabelle Augenstein


2022

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A Survey on Stance Detection for Mis- and Disinformation Identification
Momchil Hardalov | Arnav Arora | Preslav Nakov | Isabelle Augenstein
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

Understanding attitudes expressed in texts, also known as stance detection, plays an important role in systems for detecting false information online, be it misinformation (unintentionally false) or disinformation (intentionally false information). Stance detection has been framed in different ways, including (a) as a component of fact-checking, rumour detection, and detecting previously fact-checked claims, or (b) as a task in its own right. While there have been prior efforts to contrast stance detection with other related tasks such as argumentation mining and sentiment analysis, there is no existing survey on examining the relationship between stance detection and mis- and disinformation detection. Here, we aim to bridge this gap by reviewing and analysing existing work in this area, with mis- and disinformation in focus, and discussing lessons learnt and future challenges.

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Machine Reading, Fast and Slow: When Do Models “Understand” Language?
Sagnik Ray Choudhury | Anna Rogers | Isabelle Augenstein
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Two of the most fundamental issues in Natural Language Understanding (NLU) at present are: (a) how it can established whether deep learning-based models score highly on NLU benchmarks for the ”right” reasons; and (b) what those reasons would even be. We investigate the behavior of reading comprehension models with respect to two linguistic ”skills”: coreference resolution and comparison. We propose a definition for the reasoning steps expected from a system that would be ”reading slowly”, and compare that with the behavior of five models of the BERT family of various sizes, observed through saliency scores and counterfactual explanations. We find that for comparison (but not coreference) the systems based on larger encoders are more likely to rely on the ”right” information, but even they struggle with generalization, suggesting that they still learn specific lexical patterns rather than the general principles of comparison.

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Can Edge Probing Tests Reveal Linguistic Knowledge in QA Models?
Sagnik Ray Choudhury | Nikita Bhutani | Isabelle Augenstein
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

There have been many efforts to try to understand what grammatical knowledge (e.g., ability to understand the part of speech of a token) is encoded in large pre-trained language models (LM). This is done through ‘Edge Probing’ (EP) tests: supervised classification tasks to predict the grammatical properties of a span (whether it has a particular part of speech) using only the token representations coming from the LM encoder. However, most NLP applications fine-tune these LM encoders for specific tasks. Here, we ask: if an LM is fine-tuned, does the encoding of linguistic information in it change, as measured by EP tests? Specifically, we focus on the task of Question Answering (QA) and conduct experiments on multiple datasets. We find that EP test results do not change significantly when the fine-tuned model performs well or in adversarial situations where the model is forced to learn wrong correlations. From a similar finding, some recent papers conclude that fine-tuning does not change linguistic knowledge in encoders but they do not provide an explanation. We find that EP models are susceptible to exploiting spurious correlations in the EP datasets. When this dataset bias is corrected, we do see an improvement in the EP test results as expected.

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Multi3Generation: Multitask, Multilingual, Multimodal Language Generation
Anabela Barreiro | José GC de Souza | Albert Gatt | Mehul Bhatt | Elena Lloret | Aykut Erdem | Dimitra Gkatzia | Helena Moniz | Irene Russo | Fabio Kepler | Iacer Calixto | Marcin Paprzycki | François Portet | Isabelle Augenstein | Mirela Alhasani
Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the European Association for Machine Translation

This paper presents the Multitask, Multilingual, Multimodal Language Generation COST Action – Multi3Generation (CA18231), an interdisciplinary network of research groups working on different aspects of language generation. This “meta-paper” will serve as reference for citations of the Action in future publications. It presents the objectives, challenges and a the links for the achieved outcomes.

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Multi-sense Language Modelling
Andrea Lekkas | Peter Schneider-Kamp | Isabelle Augenstein
Proceedings of the Workshop on Dimensions of Meaning: Distributional and Curated Semantics (DistCurate 2022)

The effectiveness of a language model is influenced by its token representations, which must encode contextual information and handle the same word form having a plurality of meanings (polysemy). Currently, none of the common language modelling architectures explicitly model polysemy. We propose a language model which not only predicts the next word, but also its sense in context. We argue that this higher prediction granularity may be useful for end tasks such as assistive writing, and allow for more a precise linking of language models with knowledge bases. We find that multi-sense language modelling requires architectures that go beyond standard language models, and here propose a localized prediction framework that decomposes the task into a word followed by a sense prediction task. To aid sense prediction, we utilise a Graph Attention Network, which encodes definitions and example uses of word senses. Overall, we find that multi-sense language modelling is a highly challenging task, and suggest that future work focus on the creation of more annotated training datasets.

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Same Neurons, Different Languages: Probing Morphosyntax in Multilingual Pre-trained Models
Karolina Stanczak | Edoardo Ponti | Lucas Torroba Hennigen | Ryan Cotterell | Isabelle Augenstein
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

The success of multilingual pre-trained models is underpinned by their ability to learn representations shared by multiple languages even in absence of any explicit supervision. However, it remains unclear how these models learn to generalise across languages. In this work, we conjecture that multilingual pre-trained models can derive language-universal abstractions about grammar. In particular, we investigate whether morphosyntactic information is encoded in the same subset of neurons in different languages. We conduct the first large-scale empirical study over 43 languages and 14 morphosyntactic categories with a state-of-the-art neuron-level probe. Our findings show that the cross-lingual overlap between neurons is significant, but its extent may vary across categories and depends on language proximity and pre-training data size.

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Counterfactually Augmented Data and Unintended Bias: The Case of Sexism and Hate Speech Detection
Indira Sen | Mattia Samory | Claudia Wagner | Isabelle Augenstein
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Counterfactually Augmented Data (CAD) aims to improve out-of-domain generalizability, an indicator of model robustness. The improvement is credited to promoting core features of the construct over spurious artifacts that happen to correlate with it. Yet, over-relying on core features may lead to unintended model bias. Especially, construct-driven CAD—perturbations of core features—may induce models to ignore the context in which core features are used. Here, we test models for sexism and hate speech detection on challenging data: non-hate and non-sexist usage of identity and gendered terms. On these hard cases, models trained on CAD, especially construct-driven CAD, show higher false positive rates than models trained on the original, unperturbed data. Using a diverse set of CAD—construct-driven and construct-agnostic—reduces such unintended bias.

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Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on Representation Learning for NLP
Spandana Gella | He He | Bodhisattwa Prasad Majumder | Burcu Can | Eleonora Giunchiglia | Samuel Cahyawijaya | Sewon Min | Maximilian Mozes | Xiang Lorraine Li | Isabelle Augenstein | Anna Rogers | Kyunghyun Cho | Edward Grefenstette | Laura Rimell | Chris Dyer
Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on Representation Learning for NLP

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A Neighborhood Framework for Resource-Lean Content Flagging
Sheikh Muhammad Sarwar | Dimitrina Zlatkova | Momchil Hardalov | Yoan Dinkov | Isabelle Augenstein | Preslav Nakov
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 10

We propose a novel framework for cross- lingual content flagging with limited target- language data, which significantly outperforms prior work in terms of predictive performance. The framework is based on a nearest-neighbor architecture. It is a modern instantiation of the vanilla k-nearest neighbor model, as we use Transformer representations in all its components. Our framework can adapt to new source- language instances, without the need to be retrained from scratch. Unlike prior work on neighborhood-based approaches, we encode the neighborhood information based on query– neighbor interactions. We propose two encoding schemes and we show their effectiveness using both qualitative and quantitative analysis. Our evaluation results on eight languages from two different datasets for abusive language detection show sizable improvements of up to 9.5 F1 points absolute (for Italian) over strong baselines. On average, we achieve 3.6 absolute F1 points of improvement for the three languages in the Jigsaw Multilingual dataset and 2.14 points for the WUL dataset.

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Fact Checking with Insufficient Evidence
Pepa Atanasova | Jakob Grue Simonsen | Christina Lioma | Isabelle Augenstein
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 10

Automating the fact checking (FC) process relies on information obtained from external sources. In this work, we posit that it is crucial for FC models to make veracity predictions only when there is sufficient evidence and otherwise indicate when it is not enough. To this end, we are the first to study what information FC models consider sufficient by introducing a novel task and advancing it with three main contributions. First, we conduct an in-depth empirical analysis of the task with a new fluency-preserving method for omitting information from the evidence at the constituent and sentence level. We identify when models consider the remaining evidence (in)sufficient for FC, based on three trained models with different Transformer architectures and three FC datasets. Second, we ask annotators whether the omitted evidence was important for FC, resulting in a novel diagnostic dataset, SufficientFacts1, for FC with omitted evidence. We find that models are least successful in detecting missing evidence when adverbial modifiers are omitted (21% accuracy), whereas it is easiest for omitted date modifiers (63% accuracy). Finally, we propose a novel data augmentation strategy for contrastive self-learning of missing evidence by employing the proposed omission method combined with tri-training. It improves performance for Evidence Sufficiency Prediction by up to 17.8 F1 score, which in turn improves FC performance by up to 2.6 F1 score.

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Generating Scientific Claims for Zero-Shot Scientific Fact Checking
Dustin Wright | David Wadden | Kyle Lo | Bailey Kuehl | Arman Cohan | Isabelle Augenstein | Lucy Lu Wang
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Automated scientific fact checking is difficult due to the complexity of scientific language and a lack of significant amounts of training data, as annotation requires domain expertise. To address this challenge, we propose scientific claim generation, the task of generating one or more atomic and verifiable claims from scientific sentences, and demonstrate its usefulness in zero-shot fact checking for biomedical claims. We propose CLAIMGEN-BART, a new supervised method for generating claims supported by the literature, as well as KBIN, a novel method for generating claim negations. Additionally, we adapt an existing unsupervised entity-centric method of claim generation to biomedical claims, which we call CLAIMGEN-ENTITY. Experiments on zero-shot fact checking demonstrate that both CLAIMGEN-ENTITY and CLAIMGEN-BART, coupled with KBIN, achieve up to 90% performance of fully supervised models trained on manually annotated claims and evidence. A rigorous evaluation study demonstrates significant improvement in generated claim and negation quality over existing baselines

2021

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How Does Counterfactually Augmented Data Impact Models for Social Computing Constructs?
Indira Sen | Mattia Samory | Fabian Flöck | Claudia Wagner | Isabelle Augenstein
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

As NLP models are increasingly deployed in socially situated settings such as online abusive content detection, it is crucial to ensure that these models are robust. One way of improving model robustness is to generate counterfactually augmented data (CAD) for training models that can better learn to distinguish between core features and data artifacts. While models trained on this type of data have shown promising out-of-domain generalizability, it is still unclear what the sources of such improvements are. We investigate the benefits of CAD for social NLP models by focusing on three social computing constructs — sentiment, sexism, and hate speech. Assessing the performance of models trained with and without CAD across different types of datasets, we find that while models trained on CAD show lower in-domain performance, they generalize better out-of-domain. We unpack this apparent discrepancy using machine explanations and find that CAD reduces model reliance on spurious features. Leveraging a novel typology of CAD to analyze their relationship with model performance, we find that CAD which acts on the construct directly or a diverse set of CAD leads to higher performance.

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Cross-Domain Label-Adaptive Stance Detection
Momchil Hardalov | Arnav Arora | Preslav Nakov | Isabelle Augenstein
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Stance detection concerns the classification of a writer’s viewpoint towards a target. There are different task variants, e.g., stance of a tweet vs. a full article, or stance with respect to a claim vs. an (implicit) topic. Moreover, task definitions vary, which includes the label inventory, the data collection, and the annotation protocol. All these aspects hinder cross-domain studies, as they require changes to standard domain adaptation approaches. In this paper, we perform an in-depth analysis of 16 stance detection datasets, and we explore the possibility for cross-domain learning from them. Moreover, we propose an end-to-end unsupervised framework for out-of-domain prediction of unseen, user-defined labels. In particular, we combine domain adaptation techniques such as mixture of experts and domain-adversarial training with label embeddings, and we demonstrate sizable performance gains over strong baselines, both (i) in-domain, i.e., for seen targets, and (ii) out-of-domain, i.e., for unseen targets. Finally, we perform an exhaustive analysis of the cross-domain results, and we highlight the important factors influencing the model performance.

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Semi-Supervised Exaggeration Detection of Health Science Press Releases
Dustin Wright | Isabelle Augenstein
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Public trust in science depends on honest and factual communication of scientific papers. However, recent studies have demonstrated a tendency of news media to misrepresent scientific papers by exaggerating their findings. Given this, we present a formalization of and study into the problem of exaggeration detection in science communication. While there are an abundance of scientific papers and popular media articles written about them, very rarely do the articles include a direct link to the original paper, making data collection challenging, and necessitating the need for few-shot learning. We address this by curating a set of labeled press release/abstract pairs from existing expert annotated studies on exaggeration in press releases of scientific papers suitable for benchmarking the performance of machine learning models on the task. Using limited data from this and previous studies on exaggeration detection in science, we introduce MT-PET, a multi-task version of Pattern Exploiting Training (PET), which leverages knowledge from complementary cloze-style QA tasks to improve few-shot learning. We demonstrate that MT-PET outperforms PET and supervised learning both when data is limited, as well as when there is an abundance of data for the main task.

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Determining the Credibility of Science Communication
Isabelle Augenstein
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Scholarly Document Processing

Most work on scholarly document processing assumes that the information processed is trust-worthy and factually correct. However, this is not always the case. There are two core challenges, which should be addressed: 1) ensuring that scientific publications are credible – e.g. that claims are not made without supporting evidence, and that all relevant supporting evidence is provided; and 2) that scientific findings are not misrepresented, distorted or outright misreported when communicated by journalists or the general public. I will present some first steps towards addressing these problems and outline remaining challenges.

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CiteWorth: Cite-Worthiness Detection for Improved Scientific Document Understanding
Dustin Wright | Isabelle Augenstein
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

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Is Sparse Attention more Interpretable?
Clara Meister | Stefan Lazov | Isabelle Augenstein | Ryan Cotterell
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Sparse attention has been claimed to increase model interpretability under the assumption that it highlights influential inputs. Yet the attention distribution is typically over representations internal to the model rather than the inputs themselves, suggesting this assumption may not have merit. We build on the recent work exploring the interpretability of attention; we design a set of experiments to help us understand how sparsity affects our ability to use attention as an explainability tool. On three text classification tasks, we verify that only a weak relationship between inputs and co-indexed intermediate representations exists—under sparse attention and otherwise. Further, we do not find any plausible mappings from sparse attention distributions to a sparse set of influential inputs through other avenues. Rather, we observe in this setting that inducing sparsity may make it less plausible that attention can be used as a tool for understanding model behavior.

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Does Typological Blinding Impede Cross-Lingual Sharing?
Johannes Bjerva | Isabelle Augenstein
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

Bridging the performance gap between high- and low-resource languages has been the focus of much previous work. Typological features from databases such as the World Atlas of Language Structures (WALS) are a prime candidate for this, as such data exists even for very low-resource languages. However, previous work has only found minor benefits from using typological information. Our hypothesis is that a model trained in a cross-lingual setting will pick up on typological cues from the input data, thus overshadowing the utility of explicitly using such features. We verify this hypothesis by blinding a model to typological information, and investigate how cross-lingual sharing and performance is impacted. Our model is based on a cross-lingual architecture in which the latent weights governing the sharing between languages is learnt during training. We show that (i) preventing this model from exploiting typology severely reduces performance, while a control experiment reaffirms that (ii) encouraging sharing according to typology somewhat improves performance.

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Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Tutorial Abstracts
Isabelle Augenstein | Ivan Habernal
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Tutorial Abstracts

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Inducing Language-Agnostic Multilingual Representations
Wei Zhao | Steffen Eger | Johannes Bjerva | Isabelle Augenstein
Proceedings of *SEM 2021: The Tenth Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics

Cross-lingual representations have the potential to make NLP techniques available to the vast majority of languages in the world. However, they currently require large pretraining corpora or access to typologically similar languages. In this work, we address these obstacles by removing language identity signals from multilingual embeddings. We examine three approaches for this: (i) re-aligning the vector spaces of target languages (all together) to a pivot source language; (ii) removing language-specific means and variances, which yields better discriminativeness of embeddings as a by-product; and (iii) increasing input similarity across languages by removing morphological contractions and sentence reordering. We evaluate on XNLI and reference-free MT evaluation across 19 typologically diverse languages. Our findings expose the limitations of these approaches—unlike vector normalization, vector space re-alignment and text normalization do not achieve consistent gains across encoders and languages. Due to the approaches’ additive effects, their combination decreases the cross-lingual transfer gap by 8.9 points (m-BERT) and 18.2 points (XLM-R) on average across all tasks and languages, however.

2020

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2kenize: Tying Subword Sequences for Chinese Script Conversion
Pranav A | Isabelle Augenstein
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Simplified Chinese to Traditional Chinese character conversion is a common preprocessing step in Chinese NLP. Despite this, current approaches have insufficient performance because they do not take into account that a simplified Chinese character can correspond to multiple traditional characters. Here, we propose a model that can disambiguate between mappings and convert between the two scripts. The model is based on subword segmentation, two language models, as well as a method for mapping between subword sequences. We further construct benchmark datasets for topic classification and script conversion. Our proposed method outperforms previous Chinese Character conversion approaches by 6 points in accuracy. These results are further confirmed in a downstream application, where 2kenize is used to convert pretraining dataset for topic classification. An error analysis reveals that our method’s particular strengths are in dealing with code mixing and named entities.

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Generating Fact Checking Explanations
Pepa Atanasova | Jakob Grue Simonsen | Christina Lioma | Isabelle Augenstein
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Most existing work on automated fact checking is concerned with predicting the veracity of claims based on metadata, social network spread, language used in claims, and, more recently, evidence supporting or denying claims. A crucial piece of the puzzle that is still missing is to understand how to automate the most elaborate part of the process – generating justifications for verdicts on claims. This paper provides the first study of how these explanations can be generated automatically based on available claim context, and how this task can be modelled jointly with veracity prediction. Our results indicate that optimising both objectives at the same time, rather than training them separately, improves the performance of a fact checking system. The results of a manual evaluation further suggest that the informativeness, coverage and overall quality of the generated explanations are also improved in the multi-task model.

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SIGTYP 2020 Shared Task: Prediction of Typological Features
Johannes Bjerva | Elizabeth Salesky | Sabrina J. Mielke | Aditi Chaudhary | Giuseppe G. A. Celano | Edoardo Maria Ponti | Ekaterina Vylomova | Ryan Cotterell | Isabelle Augenstein
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Computational Research in Linguistic Typology

Typological knowledge bases (KBs) such as WALS (Dryer and Haspelmath, 2013) contain information about linguistic properties of the world’s languages. They have been shown to be useful for downstream applications, including cross-lingual transfer learning and linguistic probing. A major drawback hampering broader adoption of typological KBs is that they are sparsely populated, in the sense that most languages only have annotations for some features, and skewed, in that few features have wide coverage. As typological features often correlate with one another, it is possible to predict them and thus automatically populate typological KBs, which is also the focus of this shared task. Overall, the task attracted 8 submissions from 5 teams, out of which the most successful methods make use of such feature correlations. However, our error analysis reveals that even the strongest submitted systems struggle with predicting feature values for languages where few features are known.

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Claim Check-Worthiness Detection as Positive Unlabelled Learning
Dustin Wright | Isabelle Augenstein
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

As the first step of automatic fact checking, claim check-worthiness detection is a critical component of fact checking systems. There are multiple lines of research which study this problem: check-worthiness ranking from political speeches and debates, rumour detection on Twitter, and citation needed detection from Wikipedia. To date, there has been no structured comparison of these various tasks to understand their relatedness, and no investigation into whether or not a unified approach to all of them is achievable. In this work, we illuminate a central challenge in claim check-worthiness detection underlying all of these tasks, being that they hinge upon detecting both how factual a sentence is, as well as how likely a sentence is to be believed without verification. As such, annotators only mark those instances they judge to be clear-cut check-worthy. Our best performing method is a unified approach which automatically corrects for this using a variant of positive unlabelled learning that finds instances which were incorrectly labelled as not check-worthy. In applying this, we out-perform the state of the art in two of the three tasks studied for claim check-worthiness detection in English.

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What Can We Do to Improve Peer Review in NLP?
Anna Rogers | Isabelle Augenstein
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Peer review is our best tool for judging the quality of conference submissions, but it is becoming increasingly spurious. We argue that a part of the problem is that the reviewers and area chairs face a poorly defined task forcing apples-to-oranges comparisons. There are several potential ways forward, but the key difficulty is creating the incentives and mechanisms for their consistent implementation in the NLP community.

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Generating Label Cohesive and Well-Formed Adversarial Claims
Pepa Atanasova | Dustin Wright | Isabelle Augenstein
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Adversarial attacks reveal important vulnerabilities and flaws of trained models. One potent type of attack are universal adversarial triggers, which are individual n-grams that, when appended to instances of a class under attack, can trick a model into predicting a target class. However, for inference tasks such as fact checking, these triggers often inadvertently invert the meaning of instances they are inserted in. In addition, such attacks produce semantically nonsensical inputs, as they simply concatenate triggers to existing samples. Here, we investigate how to generate adversarial attacks against fact checking systems that preserve the ground truth meaning and are semantically valid. We extend the HotFlip attack algorithm used for universal trigger generation by jointly minimizing the target class loss of a fact checking model and the entailment class loss of an auxiliary natural language inference model. We then train a conditional language model to generate semantically valid statements, which include the found universal triggers. We find that the generated attacks maintain the directionality and semantic validity of the claim better than previous work.

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A Diagnostic Study of Explainability Techniques for Text Classification
Pepa Atanasova | Jakob Grue Simonsen | Christina Lioma | Isabelle Augenstein
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Recent developments in machine learning have introduced models that approach human performance at the cost of increased architectural complexity. Efforts to make the rationales behind the models’ predictions transparent have inspired an abundance of new explainability techniques. Provided with an already trained model, they compute saliency scores for the words of an input instance. However, there exists no definitive guide on (i) how to choose such a technique given a particular application task and model architecture, and (ii) the benefits and drawbacks of using each such technique. In this paper, we develop a comprehensive list of diagnostic properties for evaluating existing explainability techniques. We then employ the proposed list to compare a set of diverse explainability techniques on downstream text classification tasks and neural network architectures. We also compare the saliency scores assigned by the explainability techniques with human annotations of salient input regions to find relations between a model’s performance and the agreement of its rationales with human ones. Overall, we find that the gradient-based explanations perform best across tasks and model architectures, and we present further insights into the properties of the reviewed explainability techniques.

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Zero-Shot Cross-Lingual Transfer with Meta Learning
Farhad Nooralahzadeh | Giannis Bekoulis | Johannes Bjerva | Isabelle Augenstein
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Learning what to share between tasks has become a topic of great importance, as strategic sharing of knowledge has been shown to improve downstream task performance. This is particularly important for multilingual applications, as most languages in the world are under-resourced. Here, we consider the setting of training models on multiple different languages at the same time, when little or no data is available for languages other than English. We show that this challenging setup can be approached using meta-learning: in addition to training a source language model, another model learns to select which training instances are the most beneficial to the first. We experiment using standard supervised, zero-shot cross-lingual, as well as few-shot cross-lingual settings for different natural language understanding tasks (natural language inference, question answering). Our extensive experimental setup demonstrates the consistent effectiveness of meta-learning for a total of 15 languages. We improve upon the state-of-the-art for zero-shot and few-shot NLI (on MultiNLI and XNLI) and QA (on the MLQA dataset). A comprehensive error analysis indicates that the correlation of typological features between languages can partly explain when parameter sharing learned via meta-learning is beneficial.

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SubjQA: A Dataset for Subjectivity and Review Comprehension
Johannes Bjerva | Nikita Bhutani | Behzad Golshan | Wang-Chiew Tan | Isabelle Augenstein
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Subjectivity is the expression of internal opinions or beliefs which cannot be objectively observed or verified, and has been shown to be important for sentiment analysis and word-sense disambiguation. Furthermore, subjectivity is an important aspect of user-generated data. In spite of this, subjectivity has not been investigated in contexts where such data is widespread, such as in question answering (QA). We develop a new dataset which allows us to investigate this relationship. We find that subjectivity is an important feature in the case of QA, albeit with more intricate interactions between subjectivity and QA performance than found in previous work on sentiment analysis. For instance, a subjective question may or may not be associated with a subjective answer. We release an English QA dataset (SubjQA) based on customer reviews, containing subjectivity annotations for questions and answer spans across 6 domains.

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Transformer Based Multi-Source Domain Adaptation
Dustin Wright | Isabelle Augenstein
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

In practical machine learning settings, the data on which a model must make predictions often come from a different distribution than the data it was trained on. Here, we investigate the problem of unsupervised multi-source domain adaptation, where a model is trained on labelled data from multiple source domains and must make predictions on a domain for which no labelled data has been seen. Prior work with CNNs and RNNs has demonstrated the benefit of mixture of experts, where the predictions of multiple domain expert classifiers are combined; as well as domain adversarial training, to induce a domain agnostic representation space. Inspired by this, we investigate how such methods can be effectively applied to large pretrained transformer models. We find that domain adversarial training has an effect on the learned representations of these models while having little effect on their performance, suggesting that large transformer-based models are already relatively robust across domains. Additionally, we show that mixture of experts leads to significant performance improvements by comparing several variants of mixing functions, including one novel metric based on attention. Finally, we demonstrate that the predictions of large pretrained transformer based domain experts are highly homogenous, making it challenging to learn effective metrics for mixing their predictions.

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Unsupervised Evaluation for Question Answering with Transformers
Lukas Muttenthaler | Isabelle Augenstein | Johannes Bjerva
Proceedings of the Third BlackboxNLP Workshop on Analyzing and Interpreting Neural Networks for NLP

It is challenging to automatically evaluate the answer of a QA model at inference time. Although many models provide confidence scores, and simple heuristics can go a long way towards indicating answer correctness, such measures are heavily dataset-dependent and are unlikely to generalise. In this work, we begin by investigating the hidden representations of questions, answers, and contexts in transformer-based QA architectures. We observe a consistent pattern in the answer representations, which we show can be used to automatically evaluate whether or not a predicted answer span is correct. Our method does not require any labelled data and outperforms strong heuristic baselines, across 2 datasets and 7 domains. We are able to predict whether or not a model’s answer is correct with 91.37% accuracy on SQuAD, and 80.7% accuracy on SubjQA. We expect that this method will have broad applications, e.g., in semi-automatic development of QA datasets.

2019

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MultiFC: A Real-World Multi-Domain Dataset for Evidence-Based Fact Checking of Claims
Isabelle Augenstein | Christina Lioma | Dongsheng Wang | Lucas Chaves Lima | Casper Hansen | Christian Hansen | Jakob Grue Simonsen
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

We contribute the largest publicly available dataset of naturally occurring factual claims for the purpose of automatic claim verification. It is collected from 26 fact checking websites in English, paired with textual sources and rich metadata, and labelled for veracity by human expert journalists. We present an in-depth analysis of the dataset, highlighting characteristics and challenges. Further, we present results for automatic veracity prediction, both with established baselines and with a novel method for joint ranking of evidence pages and predicting veracity that outperforms all baselines. Significant performance increases are achieved by encoding evidence, and by modelling metadata. Our best-performing model achieves a Macro F1 of 49.2%, showing that this is a challenging testbed for claim veracity prediction.

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Mapping (Dis-)Information Flow about the MH17 Plane Crash
Mareike Hartmann | Yevgeniy Golovchenko | Isabelle Augenstein
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Internet Freedom: Censorship, Disinformation, and Propaganda

Digital media enables not only fast sharing of information, but also disinformation. One prominent case of an event leading to circulation of disinformation on social media is the MH17 plane crash. Studies analysing the spread of information about this event on Twitter have focused on small, manually annotated datasets, or used proxys for data annotation. In this work, we examine to what extent text classifiers can be used to label data for subsequent content analysis, in particular we focus on predicting pro-Russian and pro-Ukrainian Twitter content related to the MH17 plane crash. Even though we find that a neural classifier improves over a hashtag based baseline, labeling pro-Russian and pro-Ukrainian content with high precision remains a challenging problem. We provide an error analysis underlining the difficulty of the task and identify factors that might help improve classification in future work. Finally, we show how the classifier can facilitate the annotation task for human annotators.

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Transductive Auxiliary Task Self-Training for Neural Multi-Task Models
Johannes Bjerva | Katharina Kann | Isabelle Augenstein
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Deep Learning Approaches for Low-Resource NLP (DeepLo 2019)

Multi-task learning and self-training are two common ways to improve a machine learning model’s performance in settings with limited training data. Drawing heavily on ideas from those two approaches, we suggest transductive auxiliary task self-training: training a multi-task model on (i) a combination of main and auxiliary task training data, and (ii) test instances with auxiliary task labels which a single-task version of the model has previously generated. We perform extensive experiments on 86 combinations of languages and tasks. Our results are that, on average, transductive auxiliary task self-training improves absolute accuracy by up to 9.56% over the pure multi-task model for dependency relation tagging and by up to 13.03% for semantic tagging.

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X-WikiRE: A Large, Multilingual Resource for Relation Extraction as Machine Comprehension
Mostafa Abdou | Cezar Sas | Rahul Aralikatte | Isabelle Augenstein | Anders Søgaard
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Deep Learning Approaches for Low-Resource NLP (DeepLo 2019)

Although the vast majority of knowledge bases (KBs) are heavily biased towards English, Wikipedias do cover very different topics in different languages. Exploiting this, we introduce a new multilingual dataset (X-WikiRE), framing relation extraction as a multilingual machine reading problem. We show that by leveraging this resource it is possible to robustly transfer models cross-lingually and that multilingual support significantly improves (zero-shot) relation extraction, enabling the population of low-resourced KBs from their well-populated counterparts.

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Combining Sentiment Lexica with a Multi-View Variational Autoencoder
Alexander Miserlis Hoyle | Lawrence Wolf-Sonkin | Hanna Wallach | Ryan Cotterell | Isabelle Augenstein
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

When assigning quantitative labels to a dataset, different methodologies may rely on different scales. In particular, when assigning polarities to words in a sentiment lexicon, annotators may use binary, categorical, or continuous labels. Naturally, it is of interest to unify these labels from disparate scales to both achieve maximal coverage over words and to create a single, more robust sentiment lexicon while retaining scale coherence. We introduce a generative model of sentiment lexica to combine disparate scales into a common latent representation. We realize this model with a novel multi-view variational autoencoder (VAE), called SentiVAE. We evaluate our approach via a downstream text classification task involving nine English-Language sentiment analysis datasets; our representation outperforms six individual sentiment lexica, as well as a straightforward combination thereof.

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Issue Framing in Online Discussion Fora
Mareike Hartmann | Tallulah Jansen | Isabelle Augenstein | Anders Søgaard
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

In online discussion fora, speakers often make arguments for or against something, say birth control, by highlighting certain aspects of the topic. In social science, this is referred to as issue framing. In this paper, we introduce a new issue frame annotated corpus of online discussions. We explore to what extent models trained to detect issue frames in newswire and social media can be transferred to the domain of discussion fora, using a combination of multi-task and adversarial training, assuming only unlabeled training data in the target domain.

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A Probabilistic Generative Model of Linguistic Typology
Johannes Bjerva | Yova Kementchedjhieva | Ryan Cotterell | Isabelle Augenstein
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

In the principles-and-parameters framework, the structural features of languages depend on parameters that may be toggled on or off, with a single parameter often dictating the status of multiple features. The implied covariance between features inspires our probabilisation of this line of linguistic inquiry—we develop a generative model of language based on exponential-family matrix factorisation. By modelling all languages and features within the same architecture, we show how structural similarities between languages can be exploited to predict typological features with near-perfect accuracy, outperforming several baselines on the task of predicting held-out features. Furthermore, we show that language embeddings pre-trained on monolingual text allow for generalisation to unobserved languages. This finding has clear practical and also theoretical implications: the results confirm what linguists have hypothesised, i.e. that there are significant correlations between typological features and languages.

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Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Representation Learning for NLP (RepL4NLP-2019)
Isabelle Augenstein | Spandana Gella | Sebastian Ruder | Katharina Kann | Burcu Can | Johannes Welbl | Alexis Conneau | Xiang Ren | Marek Rei
Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Representation Learning for NLP (RepL4NLP-2019)

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What Do Language Representations Really Represent?
Johannes Bjerva | Robert Östling | Maria Han Veiga | Jörg Tiedemann | Isabelle Augenstein
Computational Linguistics, Volume 45, Issue 2 - June 2019

A neural language model trained on a text corpus can be used to induce distributed representations of words, such that similar words end up with similar representations. If the corpus is multilingual, the same model can be used to learn distributed representations of languages, such that similar languages end up with similar representations. We show that this holds even when the multilingual corpus has been translated into English, by picking up the faint signal left by the source languages. However, just as it is a thorny problem to separate semantic from syntactic similarity in word representations, it is not obvious what type of similarity is captured by language representations. We investigate correlations and causal relationships between language representations learned from translations on one hand, and genetic, geographical, and several levels of structural similarity between languages on the other. Of these, structural similarity is found to correlate most strongly with language representation similarity, whereas genetic relationships—a convenient benchmark used for evaluation in previous work—appears to be a confounding factor. Apart from implications about translation effects, we see this more generally as a case where NLP and linguistic typology can interact and benefit one another.

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Unsupervised Discovery of Gendered Language through Latent-Variable Modeling
Alexander Miserlis Hoyle | Lawrence Wolf-Sonkin | Hanna Wallach | Isabelle Augenstein | Ryan Cotterell
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Studying the ways in which language is gendered has long been an area of interest in sociolinguistics. Studies have explored, for example, the speech of male and female characters in film and the language used to describe male and female politicians. In this paper, we aim not to merely study this phenomenon qualitatively, but instead to quantify the degree to which the language used to describe men and women is different and, moreover, different in a positive or negative way. To that end, we introduce a generative latent-variable model that jointly represents adjective (or verb) choice, with its sentiment, given the natural gender of a head (or dependent) noun. We find that there are significant differences between descriptions of male and female nouns and that these differences align with common gender stereotypes: Positive adjectives used to describe women are more often related to their bodies than adjectives used to describe men.

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Uncovering Probabilistic Implications in Typological Knowledge Bases
Johannes Bjerva | Yova Kementchedjhieva | Ryan Cotterell | Isabelle Augenstein
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

The study of linguistic typology is rooted in the implications we find between linguistic features, such as the fact that languages with object-verb word ordering tend to have postpositions. Uncovering such implications typically amounts to time-consuming manual processing by trained and experienced linguists, which potentially leaves key linguistic universals unexplored. In this paper, we present a computational model which successfully identifies known universals, including Greenberg universals, but also uncovers new ones, worthy of further linguistic investigation. Our approach outperforms baselines previously used for this problem, as well as a strong baseline from knowledge base population.

2018

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Tracking Typological Traits of Uralic Languages in Distributed Language Representations
Johannes Bjerva | Isabelle Augenstein
Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Computational Linguistics of Uralic Languages

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Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Representation Learning for NLP
Isabelle Augenstein | Kris Cao | He He | Felix Hill | Spandana Gella | Jamie Kiros | Hongyuan Mei | Dipendra Misra
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Representation Learning for NLP

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Character-level Supervision for Low-resource POS Tagging
Katharina Kann | Johannes Bjerva | Isabelle Augenstein | Barbara Plank | Anders Søgaard
Proceedings of the Workshop on Deep Learning Approaches for Low-Resource NLP

Neural part-of-speech (POS) taggers are known to not perform well with little training data. As a step towards overcoming this problem, we present an architecture for learning more robust neural POS taggers by jointly training a hierarchical, recurrent model and a recurrent character-based sequence-to-sequence network supervised using an auxiliary objective. This way, we introduce stronger character-level supervision into the model, which enables better generalization to unseen words and provides regularization, making our encoding less prone to overfitting. We experiment with three auxiliary tasks: lemmatization, character-based word autoencoding, and character-based random string autoencoding. Experiments with minimal amounts of labeled data on 34 languages show that our new architecture outperforms a single-task baseline and, surprisingly, that, on average, raw text autoencoding can be as beneficial for low-resource POS tagging as using lemma information. Our neural POS tagger closes the gap to a state-of-the-art POS tagger (MarMoT) for low-resource scenarios by 43%, even outperforming it on languages with templatic morphology, e.g., Arabic, Hebrew, and Turkish, by some margin.

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Nightmare at test time: How punctuation prevents parsers from generalizing
Anders Søgaard | Miryam de Lhoneux | Isabelle Augenstein
Proceedings of the 2018 EMNLP Workshop BlackboxNLP: Analyzing and Interpreting Neural Networks for NLP

Punctuation is a strong indicator of syntactic structure, and parsers trained on text with punctuation often rely heavily on this signal. Punctuation is a diversion, however, since human language processing does not rely on punctuation to the same extent, and in informal texts, we therefore often leave out punctuation. We also use punctuation ungrammatically for emphatic or creative purposes, or simply by mistake. We show that (a) dependency parsers are sensitive to both absence of punctuation and to alternative uses; (b) neural parsers tend to be more sensitive than vintage parsers; (c) training neural parsers without punctuation outperforms all out-of-the-box parsers across all scenarios where punctuation departs from standard punctuation. Our main experiments are on synthetically corrupted data to study the effect of punctuation in isolation and avoid potential confounds, but we also show effects on out-of-domain data.

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A strong baseline for question relevancy ranking
Ana Gonzalez | Isabelle Augenstein | Anders Søgaard
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

The best systems at the SemEval-16 and SemEval-17 community question answering shared tasks – a task that amounts to question relevancy ranking – involve complex pipelines and manual feature engineering. Despite this, many of these still fail at beating the IR baseline, i.e., the rankings provided by Google’s search engine. We present a strong baseline for question relevancy ranking by training a simple multi-task feed forward network on a bag of 14 distance measures for the input question pair. This baseline model, which is fast to train and uses only language-independent features, outperforms the best shared task systems on the task of retrieving relevant previously asked questions.

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Parameter sharing between dependency parsers for related languages
Miryam de Lhoneux | Johannes Bjerva | Isabelle Augenstein | Anders Søgaard
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Previous work has suggested that parameter sharing between transition-based neural dependency parsers for related languages can lead to better performance, but there is no consensus on what parameters to share. We present an evaluation of 27 different parameter sharing strategies across 10 languages, representing five pairs of related languages, each pair from a different language family. We find that sharing transition classifier parameters always helps, whereas the usefulness of sharing word and/or character LSTM parameters varies. Based on this result, we propose an architecture where the transition classifier is shared, and the sharing of word and character parameters is controlled by a parameter that can be tuned on validation data. This model is linguistically motivated and obtains significant improvements over a monolingually trained baseline. We also find that sharing transition classifier parameters helps when training a parser on unrelated language pairs, but we find that, in the case of unrelated languages, sharing too many parameters does not help.

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Jack the Reader – A Machine Reading Framework
Dirk Weissenborn | Pasquale Minervini | Isabelle Augenstein | Johannes Welbl | Tim Rocktäschel | Matko Bošnjak | Jeff Mitchell | Thomas Demeester | Tim Dettmers | Pontus Stenetorp | Sebastian Riedel
Proceedings of ACL 2018, System Demonstrations

Many Machine Reading and Natural Language Understanding tasks require reading supporting text in order to answer questions. For example, in Question Answering, the supporting text can be newswire or Wikipedia articles; in Natural Language Inference, premises can be seen as the supporting text and hypotheses as questions. Providing a set of useful primitives operating in a single framework of related tasks would allow for expressive modelling, and easier model comparison and replication. To that end, we present Jack the Reader (JACK), a framework for Machine Reading that allows for quick model prototyping by component reuse, evaluation of new models on existing datasets as well as integrating new datasets and applying them on a growing set of implemented baseline models. JACK is currently supporting (but not limited to) three tasks: Question Answering, Natural Language Inference, and Link Prediction. It is developed with the aim of increasing research efficiency and code reuse.

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From Phonology to Syntax: Unsupervised Linguistic Typology at Different Levels with Language Embeddings
Johannes Bjerva | Isabelle Augenstein
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long Papers)

A core part of linguistic typology is the classification of languages according to linguistic properties, such as those detailed in the World Atlas of Language Structure (WALS). Doing this manually is prohibitively time-consuming, which is in part evidenced by the fact that only 100 out of over 7,000 languages spoken in the world are fully covered in WALS. We learn distributed language representations, which can be used to predict typological properties on a massively multilingual scale. Additionally, quantitative and qualitative analyses of these language embeddings can tell us how language similarities are encoded in NLP models for tasks at different typological levels. The representations are learned in an unsupervised manner alongside tasks at three typological levels: phonology (grapheme-to-phoneme prediction, and phoneme reconstruction), morphology (morphological inflection), and syntax (part-of-speech tagging). We consider more than 800 languages and find significant differences in the language representations encoded, depending on the target task. For instance, although Norwegian Bokmål and Danish are typologically close to one another, they are phonologically distant, which is reflected in their language embeddings growing relatively distant in a phonological task. We are also able to predict typological features in WALS with high accuracies, even for unseen language families.

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Multi-Task Learning of Pairwise Sequence Classification Tasks over Disparate Label Spaces
Isabelle Augenstein | Sebastian Ruder | Anders Søgaard
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long Papers)

We combine multi-task learning and semi-supervised learning by inducing a joint embedding space between disparate label spaces and learning transfer functions between label embeddings, enabling us to jointly leverage unlabelled data and auxiliary, annotated datasets. We evaluate our approach on a variety of tasks with disparate label spaces. We outperform strong single and multi-task baselines and achieve a new state of the art for aspect-based and topic-based sentiment analysis.

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KU-MTL at SemEval-2018 Task 1: Multi-task Identification of Affect in Tweets
Thomas Nyegaard-Signori | Casper Veistrup Helms | Johannes Bjerva | Isabelle Augenstein
Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

We take a multi-task learning approach to the shared Task 1 at SemEval-2018. The general idea concerning the model structure is to use as little external data as possible in order to preserve the task relatedness and reduce complexity. We employ multi-task learning with hard parameter sharing to exploit the relatedness between sub-tasks. As a base model, we use a standard recurrent neural network for both the classification and regression subtasks. Our system ranks 32nd out of 48 participants with a Pearson score of 0.557 in the first subtask, and 20th out of 35 in the fifth subtask with an accuracy score of 0.464.

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Copenhagen at CoNLLSIGMORPHON 2018: Multilingual Inflection in Context with Explicit Morphosyntactic Decoding
Yova Kementchedjhieva | Johannes Bjerva | Isabelle Augenstein
Proceedings of the CoNLL–SIGMORPHON 2018 Shared Task: Universal Morphological Reinflection

2017

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Turing at SemEval-2017 Task 8: Sequential Approach to Rumour Stance Classification with Branch-LSTM
Elena Kochkina | Maria Liakata | Isabelle Augenstein
Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2017)

This paper describes team Turing’s submission to SemEval 2017 RumourEval: Determining rumour veracity and support for rumours (SemEval 2017 Task 8, Subtask A). Subtask A addresses the challenge of rumour stance classification, which involves identifying the attitude of Twitter users towards the truthfulness of the rumour they are discussing. Stance classification is considered to be an important step towards rumour verification, therefore performing well in this task is expected to be useful in debunking false rumours. In this work we classify a set of Twitter posts discussing rumours into either supporting, denying, questioning or commenting on the underlying rumours. We propose a LSTM-based sequential model that, through modelling the conversational structure of tweets, which achieves an accuracy of 0.784 on the RumourEval test set outperforming all other systems in Subtask A.

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SemEval 2017 Task 10: ScienceIE - Extracting Keyphrases and Relations from Scientific Publications
Isabelle Augenstein | Mrinal Das | Sebastian Riedel | Lakshmi Vikraman | Andrew McCallum
Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2017)

We describe the SemEval task of extracting keyphrases and relations between them from scientific documents, which is crucial for understanding which publications describe which processes, tasks and materials. Although this was a new task, we had a total of 26 submissions across 3 evaluation scenarios. We expect the task and the findings reported in this paper to be relevant for researchers working on understanding scientific content, as well as the broader knowledge base population and information extraction communities.

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Multi-Task Learning of Keyphrase Boundary Classification
Isabelle Augenstein | Anders Søgaard
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Keyphrase boundary classification (KBC) is the task of detecting keyphrases in scientific articles and labelling them with respect to predefined types. Although important in practice, this task is so far underexplored, partly due to the lack of labelled data. To overcome this, we explore several auxiliary tasks, including semantic super-sense tagging and identification of multi-word expressions, and cast the task as a multi-task learning problem with deep recurrent neural networks. Our multi-task models perform significantly better than previous state of the art approaches on two scientific KBC datasets, particularly for long keyphrases.

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A Supervised Approach to Extractive Summarisation of Scientific Papers
Ed Collins | Isabelle Augenstein | Sebastian Riedel
Proceedings of the 21st Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL 2017)

Automatic summarisation is a popular approach to reduce a document to its main arguments. Recent research in the area has focused on neural approaches to summarisation, which can be very data-hungry. However, few large datasets exist and none for the traditionally popular domain of scientific publications, which opens up challenging research avenues centered on encoding large, complex documents. In this paper, we introduce a new dataset for summarisation of computer science publications by exploiting a large resource of author provided summaries and show straightforward ways of extending it further. We develop models on the dataset making use of both neural sentence encoding and traditionally used summarisation features and show that models which encode sentences as well as their local and global context perform best, significantly outperforming well-established baseline methods.

2016

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Monolingual Social Media Datasets for Detecting Contradiction and Entailment
Piroska Lendvai | Isabelle Augenstein | Kalina Bontcheva | Thierry Declerck
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

Entailment recognition approaches are useful for application domains such as information extraction, question answering or summarisation, for which evidence from multiple sentences needs to be combined. We report on a new 3-way judgement Recognizing Textual Entailment (RTE) resource that originates in the Social Media domain, and explain our semi-automatic creation method for the special purpose of information verification, which draws on manually established rumourous claims reported during crisis events. From about 500 English tweets related to 70 unique claims we compile and evaluate 5.4k RTE pairs, while continue automatizing the workflow to generate similar-sized datasets in other languages.

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Stance Detection with Bidirectional Conditional Encoding
Isabelle Augenstein | Tim Rocktäschel | Andreas Vlachos | Kalina Bontcheva
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Numerically Grounded Language Models for Semantic Error Correction
Georgios Spithourakis | Isabelle Augenstein | Sebastian Riedel
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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emoji2vec: Learning Emoji Representations from their Description
Ben Eisner | Tim Rocktäschel | Isabelle Augenstein | Matko Bošnjak | Sebastian Riedel
Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Social Media

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USFD at SemEval-2016 Task 6: Any-Target Stance Detection on Twitter with Autoencoders
Isabelle Augenstein | Andreas Vlachos | Kalina Bontcheva
Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2016)

2015

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Extracting Relations between Non-Standard Entities using Distant Supervision and Imitation Learning
Isabelle Augenstein | Andreas Vlachos | Diana Maynard
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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USFD: Twitter NER with Drift Compensation and Linked Data
Leon Derczynski | Isabelle Augenstein | Kalina Bontcheva
Proceedings of the Workshop on Noisy User-generated Text

2014

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Seed Selection for Distantly Supervised Web-Based Relation Extraction
Isabelle Augenstein
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Semantic Web and Information Extraction

2013

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Mining Equivalent Relations from Linked Data
Ziqi Zhang | Anna Lisa Gentile | Isabelle Augenstein | Eva Blomqvist | Fabio Ciravegna
Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

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