Jacqueline He


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Challenges in Context-Aware Neural Machine Translation
Linghao Jin | Jacqueline He | Jonathan May | Xuezhe Ma
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Context-aware neural machine translation, a paradigm that involves leveraging information beyond sentence-level context to resolve inter-sentential discourse dependencies and improve document-level translation quality, has given rise to a number of recent techniques. However, despite well-reasoned intuitions, most context-aware translation models show only modest improvements over sentence-level systems. In this work, we investigate and present several core challenges that impede progress within the field, relating to discourse phenomena, context usage, model architectures, and document-level evaluation. To address these problems, we propose a more realistic setting for document-level translation, called paragraph-to-paragraph (PARA2PARA) translation, and collect a new dataset of Chinese-English novels to promote future research.


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Can Rationalization Improve Robustness?
Howard Chen | Jacqueline He | Karthik Narasimhan | Danqi Chen
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

A growing line of work has investigated the development of neural NLP models that can produce rationales–subsets of input that can explain their model predictions. In this paper, we ask whether such rationale models can provide robustness to adversarial attacks in addition to their interpretable nature. Since these models need to first generate rationales (“rationalizer”) before making predictions (“predictor”), they have the potential to ignore noise or adversarially added text by simply masking it out of the generated rationale. To this end, we systematically generate various types of ‘AddText’ attacks for both token and sentence-level rationalization tasks and perform an extensive empirical evaluation of state-of-the-art rationale models across five different tasks. Our experiments reveal that the rationale models promise to improve robustness over AddText attacks while they struggle in certain scenarios–when the rationalizer is sensitive to position bias or lexical choices of attack text. Further, leveraging human rationale as supervision does not always translate to better performance. Our study is a first step towards exploring the interplay between interpretability and robustness in the rationalize-then-predict framework.

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MABEL: Attenuating Gender Bias using Textual Entailment Data
Jacqueline He | Mengzhou Xia | Christiane Fellbaum | Danqi Chen
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Pre-trained language models encode undesirable social biases, which are further exacerbated in downstream use. To this end, we propose MABEL (a Method for Attenuating Gender Bias using Entailment Labels), an intermediate pre-training approach for mitigating gender bias in contextualized representations. Key to our approach is the use of a contrastive learning objective on counterfactually augmented, gender-balanced entailment pairs from natural language inference (NLI) datasets. We also introduce an alignment regularizer that pulls identical entailment pairs along opposite gender directions closer. We extensively evaluate our approach on intrinsic and extrinsic metrics, and show that MABEL outperforms previous task-agnostic debiasing approaches in terms of fairness. It also preserves task performance after fine-tuning on downstream tasks. Together, these findings demonstrate the suitability of NLI data as an effective means of bias mitigation, as opposed to only using unlabeled sentences in the literature. Finally, we identify that existing approaches often use evaluation settings that are insufficient or inconsistent. We make an effort to reproduce and compare previous methods, and call for unifying the evaluation settings across gender debiasing methods for better future comparison.