Jaehun Jung


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Inference-Time Policy Adapters (IPA): Tailoring Extreme-Scale LMs without Fine-tuning
Ximing Lu | Faeze Brahman | Peter West | Jaehun Jung | Khyathi Chandu | Abhilasha Ravichander | Prithviraj Ammanabrolu | Liwei Jiang | Sahana Ramnath | Nouha Dziri | Jillian Fisher | Bill Lin | Skyler Hallinan | Lianhui Qin | Xiang Ren | Sean Welleck | Yejin Choi
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

While extreme-scale language models have demonstrated exceptional performance on a variety of language tasks, the degree of control over these language models through pure prompting can often be limited. Directly fine-tuning such language models can be effective for tailoring them, but it can be either extremely costly (e.g., GPT-3) or not even feasible for the broader community (e.g., GPT-4). We propose Inference-time Policy Adapters (IPA), which efficiently tailors a language model such as GPT-3 without fine-tuning it. IPA guides a large base model during decoding time through a lightweight policy adapter trained to optimize an arbitrary user objective with reinforcement learning. On five challenging text generation tasks, such as toxicity reduction and lexically constrained generation, IPA consistently brings significant improvements over off-the-shelf language models. It outperforms competitive baseline methods, sometimes even including expensive fine-tuning. In particular, tailoring GPT-2 with IPA can outperform GPT-3, while tailoring GPT-3 with IPA brings a major performance boost over GPT-3 (and sometimes even over GPT-4). Our promising results highlight the potential of IPA as a lightweight alternative to tailoring extreme-scale language models.

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STEER: Unified Style Transfer with Expert Reinforcement
Skyler Hallinan | Faeze Brahman | Ximing Lu | Jaehun Jung | Sean Welleck | Yejin Choi
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

While text style transfer has many applications across natural language processing, the core premise of transferring from a single source style is unrealistic in a real-world setting. In this work, we focus on arbitrary style transfer: rewriting a text from an arbitrary, unknown style to a target style. We propose STEER: Unified Style Transfer with Expert Reinforcement, a unified frame-work developed to overcome the challenge of limited parallel data for style transfer. STEER involves automatically generating a corpus of style-transfer pairs using a product of experts during decoding. The generated offline data is then used to pre-train an initial policy before switching to online, off-policy reinforcement learning for further improvements via fine-grained reward signals. STEER is unified and can transfer to multiple target styles from an arbitrary, unknown source style, making it particularly flexible and efficient. Experimental results on a challenging dataset with text from a diverse set of styles demonstrate state-of-the-art results compared to competitive baselines. Remarkably, STEER outperforms the 175B parameter instruction-tuned GPT-3 on overall style transfer quality, despite being 226 times smaller in size. We also show STEER is robust, maintaining its style transfer capabilities on out-of-domain data, and surpassing nearly all baselines across various styles. The success of our method highlights the potential of RL algorithms when augmented with controllable decoding to overcome the challenge of limited data supervision.


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Maieutic Prompting: Logically Consistent Reasoning with Recursive Explanations
Jaehun Jung | Lianhui Qin | Sean Welleck | Faeze Brahman | Chandra Bhagavatula | Ronan Le Bras | Yejin Choi
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Pre-trained language models (LMs) struggle with consistent reasoning; recently, prompting LMs to generate explanations that self-guide the inference has emerged as a promising direction to amend this. However, these approaches are fundamentally bounded by the correctness of explanations, which themselves are often noisy and inconsistent. In this work, we develop Maieutic Prompting, which aims to infer a correct answer to a question even from the unreliable generations of LM. Maieutic Prompting induces a tree of explanations abductively (e.g. X is true, because ...) and recursively, then frames the inference as a satisfiability problem over these explanations and their logical relations. We test Maieutic Prompting for true/false QA on three challenging benchmarks that require complex commonsense reasoning. Maieutic Prompting achieves up to 20% better accuracy than state-of-the-art prompting methods, and as a fully unsupervised approach, performs competitively with supervised models. We also show that Maieutic Prompting improves robustness in inference while providing interpretable rationales.


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AttnIO: Knowledge Graph Exploration with In-and-Out Attention Flow for Knowledge-Grounded Dialogue
Jaehun Jung | Bokyung Son | Sungwon Lyu
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Retrieving the proper knowledge relevant to conversational context is an important challenge in dialogue systems, to engage users with more informative response. Several recent works propose to formulate this knowledge selection problem as a path traversal over an external knowledge graph (KG), but show only a limited utilization of KG structure, leaving rooms of improvement in performance. To this effect, we present AttnIO, a new dialog-conditioned path traversal model that makes a full use of rich structural information in KG based on two directions of attention flows. Through the attention flows, AttnIO is not only capable of exploring a broad range of multi-hop knowledge paths, but also learns to flexibly adjust the varying range of plausible nodes and edges to attend depending on the dialog context. Empirical evaluations present a marked performance improvement of AttnIO compared to all baselines in OpenDialKG dataset. Also, we find that our model can be trained to generate an adequate knowledge path even when the paths are not available and only the destination nodes are given as label, making it more applicable to real-world dialogue systems.