Jan Štěpánek


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Quality and Efficiency of Manual Annotation: Pre-annotation Bias
Marie Mikulová | Milan Straka | Jan Štěpánek | Barbora Štěpánková | Jan Hajic
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

This paper presents an analysis of annotation using an automatic pre-annotation for a mid-level annotation complexity task - dependency syntax annotation. It compares the annotation efforts made by annotators using a pre-annotated version (with a high-accuracy parser) and those made by fully manual annotation. The aim of the experiment is to judge the final annotation quality when pre-annotation is used. In addition, it evaluates the effect of automatic linguistically-based (rule-formulated) checks and another annotation on the same data available to the annotators, and their influence on annotation quality and efficiency. The experiment confirmed that the pre-annotation is an efficient tool for faster manual syntactic annotation which increases the consistency of the resulting annotation without reducing its quality.


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Prague Dependency Treebank - Consolidated 1.0
Jan Hajič | Eduard Bejček | Jaroslava Hlavacova | Marie Mikulová | Milan Straka | Jan Štěpánek | Barbora Štěpánková
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

We present a richly annotated and genre-diversified language resource, the Prague Dependency Treebank-Consolidated 1.0 (PDT-C 1.0), the purpose of which is - as it always been the case for the family of the Prague Dependency Treebanks - to serve both as a training data for various types of NLP tasks as well as for linguistically-oriented research. PDT-C 1.0 contains four different datasets of Czech, uniformly annotated using the standard PDT scheme (albeit not everything is annotated manually, as we describe in detail here). The texts come from different sources: daily newspaper articles, Czech translation of the Wall Street Journal, transcribed dialogs and a small amount of user-generated, short, often non-standard language segments typed into a web translator. Altogether, the treebank contains around 180,000 sentences with their morphological, surface and deep syntactic annotation. The diversity of the texts and annotations should serve well the NLP applications as well as it is an invaluable resource for linguistic research, including comparative studies regarding texts of different genres. The corpus is publicly and freely available.


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Searching in the Penn Discourse Treebank Using the PML-Tree Query
Jiří Mírovský | Lucie Poláková | Jan Štěpánek
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

The PML-Tree Query is a general, powerful and user-friendly system for querying richly linguistically annotated treebanks. The paper shows how the PML-Tree Query can be used for searching for discourse relations in the Penn Discourse Treebank 2.0 mapped onto the syntactic annotation of the Penn Treebank.


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Coordination Structures in Dependency Treebanks
Martin Popel | David Mareček | Jan Štěpánek | Daniel Zeman | Zdeněk Žabokrtský
Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)


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HamleDT: To Parse or Not to Parse?
Daniel Zeman | David Mareček | Martin Popel | Loganathan Ramasamy | Jan Štěpánek | Zdeněk Žabokrtský | Jan Hajič
Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'12)

We propose HamleDT ― HArmonized Multi-LanguagE Dependency Treebank. HamleDT is a compilation of existing dependency treebanks (or dependency conversions of other treebanks), transformed so that they all conform to the same annotation style. While the license terms prevent us from directly redistributing the corpora, most of them are easily acquirable for research purposes. What we provide instead is the software that normalizes tree structures in the data obtained by the user from their original providers.

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Announcing Prague Czech-English Dependency Treebank 2.0
Jan Hajič | Eva Hajičová | Jarmila Panevová | Petr Sgall | Ondřej Bojar | Silvie Cinková | Eva Fučíková | Marie Mikulová | Petr Pajas | Jan Popelka | Jiří Semecký | Jana Šindlerová | Jan Štěpánek | Josef Toman | Zdeňka Urešová | Zdeněk Žabokrtský
Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'12)

We introduce a substantial update of the Prague Czech-English Dependency Treebank, a parallel corpus manually annotated at the deep syntactic layer of linguistic representation. The English part consists of the Wall Street Journal (WSJ) section of the Penn Treebank. The Czech part was translated from the English source sentence by sentence. This paper gives a high level overview of the underlying linguistic theory (the so-called tectogrammatical annotation) with some details of the most important features like valency annotation, ellipsis reconstruction or coreference.

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Prague Dependency Treebank 2.5 – a Revisited Version of PDT 2.0
Eduard Bejček | Jarmila Panevová | Jan Popelka | Pavel Straňák | Magda Ševčíková | Jan Štěpánek | Zdeněk Žabokrtský
Proceedings of COLING 2012

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Prague Markup Language Framework
Jirka Hana | Jan Štěpánek
Proceedings of the Sixth Linguistic Annotation Workshop


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Querying Diverse Treebanks in a Uniform Way
Jan Štěpánek | Petr Pajas
Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'10)

This paper presents a system for querying treebanks in a uniform way. The system is able to work with both dependency and constituency based treebanks in any language. We demonstrate its abilities on 11 different treebanks. The query language used by the system provides many features not available in other existing systems while still keeping the performance efficient. The paper also describes the conversion of ten treebanks into a common XML-based format used by the system, touching the question of standards and formats. The paper then shows several examples of linguistically interesting questions that the system is able to answer, for example browsing verbal clauses without subjects or extraposed relative clauses, generating the underlying grammar in a constituency treebank, searching for non-projective edges in a dependency treebank, or word-order typology of a language based on the treebank. The performance of several implementations of the system is also discussed by measuring the time requirements of some of the queries.

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Ways of Evaluation of the Annotators in Building the Prague Czech-English Dependency Treebank
Marie Mikulová | Jan Štěpánek
Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'10)

In this paper, we present several ways to measure and evaluate the annotation and annotators, proposed and used during the building of the Czech part of the Prague Czech-English Dependency Treebank. At first, the basic principles of the treebank annotation project are introduced (division to three layers: morphological, analytical and tectogrammatical). The main part of the paper describes in detail one of the important phases of the annotation process: three ways of evaluation of the annotators - inter-annotator agreement, error rate and performance. The measuring of the inter-annotator agreement is complicated by the fact that the data contain added and deleted nodes, making the alignment between annotations non-trivial. The error rate is measured by a set of automatic checking procedures that guard the validity of some invariants in the data. The performance of the annotators is measured by a booking web application. All three measures are later compared and related to each other.


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The CoNLL-2009 Shared Task: Syntactic and Semantic Dependencies in Multiple Languages
Jan Hajič | Massimiliano Ciaramita | Richard Johansson | Daisuke Kawahara | Maria Antònia Martí | Lluís Màrquez | Adam Meyers | Joakim Nivre | Sebastian Padó | Jan Štěpánek | Pavel Straňák | Mihai Surdeanu | Nianwen Xue | Yi Zhang
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL 2009): Shared Task

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System for Querying Syntactically Annotated Corpora
Petr Pajas | Jan Štěpánek
Proceedings of the ACL-IJCNLP 2009 Software Demonstrations


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Recent Advances in a Feature-Rich Framework for Treebank Annotation
Petr Pajas | Jan Štěpánek
Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Computational Linguistics (Coling 2008)