Janis Pagel


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Evaluating In-Context Learning for Computational Literary Studies: A Case Study Based on the Automatic Recognition of Knowledge Transfer in German Drama
Janis Pagel | Axel Pichler | Nils Reiter
Proceedings of the 8th Joint SIGHUM Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Cultural Heritage, Social Sciences, Humanities and Literature (LaTeCH-CLfL 2024)

In this paper, we evaluate two different natural language processing (NLP) approaches to solve a paradigmatic task for computational literary studies (CLS): the recognition of knowledge transfer in literary texts. We focus on the question of how adequately large language models capture the transfer of knowledge about family relations in German drama texts when this transfer is treated as a classification or textual entailment task using in-context learning (ICL). We find that a 13 billion parameter LLAMA 2 model performs best on the former, while GPT-4 performs best on the latter task. However, all models achieve relatively low scores compared to standard NLP benchmark results, struggle from inconsistencies with small changes in prompts and are often not able to make simple inferences beyond the textual surface, which is why an unreflected generic use of ICL in the CLS seems still not advisable.


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DramaCoref: A Hybrid Coreference Resolution System for German Theater Plays
Janis Pagel | Nils Reiter
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Computational Models of Reference, Anaphora and Coreference

We present a system for resolving coreference on theater plays, DramaCoref. The system uses neural network techniques to provide a list of potential mentions. These mentions are assigned to common entities using generic and domain-specific rules. We find that DramaCoref works well on the theater plays when compared to corpora from other domains and profits from the inclusion of information specific to theater plays. On the best-performing setup, it achieves a CoNLL score of 32% when using automatically detected mentions and 55% when using gold mentions. Single rules achieve high precision scores; however, rules designed on other domains are often not applicable or yield unsatisfactory results. Error analysis shows that the mention detection is the main weakness of the system, providing directions for future improvements.


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GerDraCor-Coref: A Coreference Corpus for Dramatic Texts in German
Janis Pagel | Nils Reiter
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Dramatic texts are a highly structured literary text type. Their quantitative analysis so far has relied on analysing structural properties (e.g., in the form of networks). Resolving coreferences is crucial for an analysis of the content of the character speech, but developing automatic coreference resolution (CR) systems depends on the existence of annotated corpora. In this paper, we present an annotated corpus of German dramatic texts, a preliminary analysis of the corpus as well as some baseline experiments on automatic CR. The analysis shows that with respect to the reference structure, dramatic texts are very different from news texts, but more similar to other dialogical text types such as interviews. Baseline experiments show a performance of 28.8 CoNLL score achieved by the rule-based CR system CorZu. In the future, we plan to integrate the (partial) information given in the dramatis personae into the CR model.


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Measuring the Compositionality of Noun-Noun Compounds over Time
Prajit Dhar | Janis Pagel | Lonneke van der Plas
Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Computational Approaches to Historical Language Change

We present work in progress on the temporal progression of compositionality in noun-noun compounds. Previous work has proposed computational methods for determining the compositionality of compounds. These methods try to automatically determine how transparent the meaning of the compound as a whole is with respect to the meaning of its parts. We hypothesize that such a property might change over time. We use the time-stamped Google Books corpus for our diachronic investigations, and first examine whether the vector-based semantic spaces extracted from this corpus are able to predict compositionality ratings, despite their inherent limitations. We find that using temporal information helps predicting the ratings, although correlation with the ratings is lower than reported for other corpora. Finally, we show changes in compositionality over time for a selection of compounds.


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Towards Bridging Resolution in German: Data Analysis and Rule-based Experiments
Janis Pagel | Ina Roesiger
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Computational Models of Reference, Anaphora and Coreference

Bridging resolution is the task of recognising bridging anaphors and linking them to their antecedents. While there is some work on bridging resolution for English, there is only little work for German. We present two datasets which contain bridging annotations, namely DIRNDL and GRAIN, and compare the performance of a rule-based system with a simple baseline approach on these two corpora. The performance for full bridging resolution ranges between an F1 score of 13.6% for DIRNDL and 11.8% for GRAIN. An analysis using oracle lists suggests that the system could, to a certain extent, benefit from ranking and re-ranking antecedent candidates. Furthermore, we investigate the importance of single features and show that the features used in our work seem promising for future bridging resolution approaches.