Jannes Münchmeyer


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Extend, don’t rebuild: Phrasing conditional graph modification as autoregressive sequence labelling
Leon Weber | Jannes Münchmeyer | Samuele Garda | Ulf Leser
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Deriving and modifying graphs from natural language text has become a versatile basis technology for information extraction with applications in many subfields, such as semantic parsing or knowledge graph construction. A recent work used this technique for modifying scene graphs (He et al. 2020), by first encoding the original graph and then generating the modified one based on this encoding. In this work, we show that we can considerably increase performance on this problem by phrasing it as graph extension instead of graph generation. We propose the first model for the resulting graph extension problem based on autoregressive sequence labelling. On three scene graph modification data sets, this formulation leads to improvements in accuracy over the state-of-the-art between 13 and 24 percentage points. Furthermore, we introduce a novel data set from the biomedical domain which has much larger linguistic variability and more complex graphs than the scene graph modification data sets. For this data set, the state-of-the art fails to generalize, while our model can produce meaningful predictions.


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NLProlog: Reasoning with Weak Unification for Question Answering in Natural Language
Leon Weber | Pasquale Minervini | Jannes Münchmeyer | Ulf Leser | Tim Rocktäschel
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Rule-based models are attractive for various tasks because they inherently lead to interpretable and explainable decisions and can easily incorporate prior knowledge. However, such systems are difficult to apply to problems involving natural language, due to its large linguistic variability. In contrast, neural models can cope very well with ambiguity by learning distributed representations of words and their composition from data, but lead to models that are difficult to interpret. In this paper, we describe a model combining neural networks with logic programming in a novel manner for solving multi-hop reasoning tasks over natural language. Specifically, we propose to use an Prolog prover which we extend to utilize a similarity function over pretrained sentence encoders. We fine-tune the representations for the similarity function via backpropagation. This leads to a system that can apply rule-based reasoning to natural language, and induce domain-specific natural language rules from training data. We evaluate the proposed system on two different question answering tasks, showing that it outperforms two baselines – BiDAF (Seo et al., 2016a) and FastQA( Weissenborn et al., 2017) on a subset of the WikiHop corpus and achieves competitive results on the MedHop data set (Welbl et al., 2017).