Janvijay Singh


pdf bib
Entity Tracking via Effective Use of Multi-Task Learning Model and Mention-guided Decoding
Janvijay Singh | Fan Bai | Zhen Wang
Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Cross-task knowledge transfer via multi-task learning has recently made remarkable progress in general NLP tasks. However, entity tracking on the procedural text has not benefited from such knowledge transfer because of its distinct formulation, i.e., tracking the event flow while following structural constraints. State-of-the-art entity tracking approaches either design complicated model architectures or rely on task-specific pre-training to achieve good results. To this end, we propose MeeT, a Multi-task learning-enabled entity Tracking approach, which utilizes knowledge gained from general domain tasks to improve entity tracking. Specifically, MeeT first fine-tunes T5, a pre-trained multi-task learning model, with entity tracking-specialized QA formats, and then employs our customized decoding strategy to satisfy the structural constraints. MeeT achieves state-of-the-art performances on two popular entity tracking datasets, even though it does not require any task-specific architecture design or pre-training.

pdf bib
Enhancing Textbooks with Visuals from the Web for Improved Learning
Janvijay Singh | Vilém Zouhar | Mrinmaya Sachan
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Textbooks are one of the main mediums for delivering high-quality education to students. In particular, explanatory and illustrative visuals play a key role in retention, comprehension and general transfer of knowledge. However, many textbooks lack these interesting visuals to support student learning. In this paper, we investigate the effectiveness of vision-language models to automatically enhance textbooks with images from the web. We collect a dataset of e-textbooks in the math, science, social science and business domains. We then set up a text-image matching task that involves retrieving and appropriately assigning web images to textbooks, which we frame as a matching optimization problem. Through a crowd-sourced evaluation, we verify that (1) while the original textbook images are rated higher, automatically assigned ones are not far behind, and (2) the precise formulation of the optimization problem matters. We release the dataset of textbooks with an associated image bank to inspire further research in this intersectional area of computer vision and NLP for education.

pdf bib
Forgotten Knowledge: Examining the Citational Amnesia in NLP
Janvijay Singh | Mukund Rungta | Diyi Yang | Saif Mohammad
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Citing papers is the primary method through which modern scientific writing discusses and builds on past work. Collectively, citing a diverse set of papers (in time and area of study) is an indicator of how widely the community is reading. Yet, there is little work looking at broad temporal patterns of citation. This work systematically and empirically examines: How far back in time do we tend to go to cite papers? How has that changed over time, and what factors correlate with this citational attention/amnesia? We chose NLP as our domain of interest and analyzed approximately 71.5K papers to show and quantify several key trends in citation. Notably, around 62% of cited papers are from the immediate five years prior to publication, whereas only about 17% are more than ten years old. Furthermore, we show that the median age and age diversity of cited papers were steadily increasing from 1990 to 2014, but since then, the trend has reversed, and current NLP papers have an all-time low temporal citation diversity. Finally, we show that unlike the 1990s, the highly cited papers in the last decade were also papers with the least citation diversity, likely contributing to the intense (and arguably harmful) recency focus. Code, data, and a demo are available on the project homepage.


pdf bib
Geographic Citation Gaps in NLP Research
Mukund Rungta | Janvijay Singh | Saif M. Mohammad | Diyi Yang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In a fair world, people have equitable opportunities to education, to conduct scientific research, to publish, and to get credit for their work, regardless of where they live. However, it is common knowledge among researchers that a vast number of papers accepted at top NLP venues come from a handful of western countries and (lately) China; whereas, very few papers from Africa and South America get published. Similar disparities are also believed to exist for paper citation counts. In the spirit of “what we do not measure, we cannot improve”, this work asks a series of questions on the relationship between geographical location and publication success (acceptance in top NLP venues and citation impact). We first created a dataset of 70,000 papers from the ACL Anthology, extracted their meta-information, andgenerated their citation network. We then show that not only are there substantial geographical disparities in paper acceptance and citation but also that these disparities persist even when controlling for a number of variables such as venue of publication and sub-field of NLP. Further, despite some steps taken by the NLP community to improve geographical diversity, we show that the disparity in publication metrics across locations is still on an increasing trend since the early 2000s. We release our code and dataset here: https://github.com/iamjanvijay/acl-cite-net


pdf bib
PublishInCovid19 at the FinSBD-2 Task: Sentence and List Extraction in Noisy PDF Text Using a Hybrid Deep Learning and Rule-Based Approach
Janvijay Singh
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Financial Technology and Natural Language Processing

pdf bib
PublishInCovid19 at WNUT 2020 Shared Task-1: Entity Recognition in Wet Lab Protocols using Structured Learning Ensemble and Contextualised Embeddings
Janvijay Singh | Anshul Wadhawan
Proceedings of the Sixth Workshop on Noisy User-generated Text (W-NUT 2020)

In this paper, we describe the approach that we employed to address the task of Entity Recognition over Wet Lab Protocols - a shared task in EMNLP WNUT-2020 Workshop. Our approach is composed of two phases. In the first phase, we experiment with various contextualised word embeddings (like Flair, BERT-based) and a BiLSTM-CRF model to arrive at the best-performing architecture. In the second phase, we create an ensemble composed of eleven BiLSTM-CRF models. The individual models are trained on random train-validation splits of the complete dataset. Here, we also experiment with different output merging schemes, including Majority Voting and Structured Learning Ensembling (SLE). Our final submission achieved a micro F1-score of 0.8175 and 0.7757 for the partial and exact match of the entity spans, respectively. We were ranked first and second, in terms of partial and exact match, respectively.