Jared Kramer


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Automating Template Creation for Ranking-Based Dialogue Models
Jingxiang Chen | Heba Elfardy | Simi Wang | Andrea Kahn | Jared Kramer
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Conversational AI

Dialogue response generation models that use template ranking rather than direct sequence generation allow model developers to limit generated responses to pre-approved messages. However, manually creating templates is time-consuming and requires domain expertise. To alleviate this problem, we explore automating the process of creating dialogue templates by using unsupervised methods to cluster historical utterances and selecting representative utterances from each cluster. Specifically, we propose an end-to-end model called Deep Sentence Encoder Clustering (DSEC) that uses an auto-encoder structure to jointly learn the utterance representation and construct template clusters. We compare this method to a random baseline that randomly assigns templates to clusters as well as a strong baseline that performs the sentence encoding and the utterance clustering sequentially. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, we perform an automatic evaluation with two annotated customer service datasets to assess clustering effectiveness, and a human-in-the-loop experiment using a live customer service application to measure the acceptance rate of the generated templates. DSEC performs best in the automatic evaluation, beats both the sequential and random baselines on most metrics in the human-in-the-loop experiment, and shows promising results when compared to gold/manually created templates.


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Goal-Oriented End-to-End Conversational Models with Profile Features in a Real-World Setting
Yichao Lu | Manisha Srivastava | Jared Kramer | Heba Elfardy | Andrea Kahn | Song Wang | Vikas Bhardwaj
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 2 (Industry Papers)

End-to-end neural models for goal-oriented conversational systems have become an increasingly active area of research, though results in real-world settings are few. We present real-world results for two issue types in the customer service domain. We train models on historical chat transcripts and test on live contacts using a human-in-the-loop research platform. Additionally, we incorporate customer profile features to assess their impact on model performance. We experiment with two approaches for response generation: (1) sequence-to-sequence generation and (2) template ranking. To test our models, a customer service agent handles live contacts and at each turn we present the top four model responses and allow the agent to select (and optionally edit) one of the suggestions or to type their own. We present results for turn acceptance rate, response coverage, and edit rate based on approximately 600 contacts, as well as qualitative analysis on patterns of turn rejection and edit behavior. Top-4 turn acceptance rate across all models ranges from 63%-80%. Our results suggest that these models are promising for an agent-support application.


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Bingo at IJCNLP-2017 Task 4: Augmenting Data using Machine Translation for Cross-linguistic Customer Feedback Classification
Heba Elfardy | Manisha Srivastava | Wei Xiao | Jared Kramer | Tarun Agarwal
Proceedings of the IJCNLP 2017, Shared Tasks

The ability to automatically and accurately process customer feedback is a necessity in the private sector. Unfortunately, customer feedback can be one of the most difficult types of data to work with due to the sheer volume and variety of services, products, languages, and cultures that comprise the customer experience. In order to address this issue, our team built a suite of classifiers trained on a four-language, multi-label corpus released as part of the shared task on “Customer Feedback Analysis” at IJCNLP 2017. In addition to standard text preprocessing, we translated each dataset into each other language to increase the size of the training datasets. Additionally, we also used word embeddings in our feature engineering step. Ultimately, we trained classifiers using Logistic Regression, Random Forest, and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Networks. Overall, we achieved a Macro-Average F-score between 48.7% and 56.0% for the four languages and ranked 3/12 for English, 3/7 for Spanish, 1/8 for French, and 2/7 for Japanese.


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Improvement of a Naive Bayes Sentiment Classifier Using MRS-Based Features
Jared Kramer | Clara Gordon
Proceedings of the Third Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics (*SEM 2014)