Jean-François Godbout


2024

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An Evaluation of Language Models for Hyperpartisan Ideology Detection in Persian Twitter
Sahar Omidi Shayegan | Isar Nejadgholi | Kellin Pelrine | Hao Yu | Sacha Levy | Zachary Yang | Jean-François Godbout | Reihaneh Rabbany
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Resources and Technologies for Indigenous, Endangered and Lesser-resourced Languages in Eurasia (EURALI) @ LREC-COLING 2024

Large Language Models (LLMs) have shown significant promise in various tasks, including identifying the political beliefs of English-speaking social media users from their posts. However, assessing LLMs for this task in non-English languages remains unexplored. In this work, we ask to what extent LLMs can predict the political ideologies of users in Persian social media. To answer this question, we first acknowledge that political parties are not well-defined among Persian users, and therefore, we simplify the task to a much simpler task of hyperpartisan ideology detection. We create a new benchmark and show the potential and limitations of both open-source and commercial LLMs in classifying the hyper-partisan ideologies of users. We compare these models with smaller fine-tuned models, both on the Persian language (ParsBERT) and translated data (RoBERTa), showing that they considerably outperform generative LLMs in this task. We further demonstrate that the performance of the generative LLMs degrades when classifying users based on their tweets instead of their bios and even when tweets are added as additional information, whereas the smaller fine-tuned models are robust and achieve similar performance for all classes. This study is a first step toward political ideology detection in Persian Twitter, with implications for future research to understand the dynamics of ideologies in Persian social media.

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Uncertainty Resolution in Misinformation Detection
Yury Orlovskiy | Camille Thibault | Anne Imouza | Jean-François Godbout | Reihaneh Rabbany | Kellin Pelrine
Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Uncertainty-Aware NLP (UncertaiNLP 2024)

Misinformation poses a variety of risks, such as undermining public trust and distorting factual discourse. Large Language Models (LLMs) like GPT-4 have been shown effective in mitigating misinformation, particularly in handling statements where enough context is provided. However, they struggle to assess ambiguous or context-deficient statements accurately. This work introduces a new method to resolve uncertainty in such statements. We propose a framework to categorize missing information and publish category labels for the LIAR-New dataset, which is adaptable to cross-domain content with missing information. We then leverage this framework to generate effective user queries for missing context. Compared to baselines, our method improves the rate at which generated questions are answerable by the user by 38 percentage points and classification performance by over 10 percentage points macro F1. Thus, this approach may provide a valuable component for future misinformation mitigation pipelines.

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Combining Confidence Elicitation and Sample-based Methods for Uncertainty Quantification in Misinformation Mitigation
Mauricio Rivera | Jean-François Godbout | Reihaneh Rabbany | Kellin Pelrine
Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Uncertainty-Aware NLP (UncertaiNLP 2024)

Large Language Models have emerged as prime candidates to tackle misinformation mitigation. However, existing approaches struggle with hallucinations and overconfident predictions. We propose an uncertainty quantification framework that leverages both direct confidence elicitation and sampled-based consistency methods to provide better calibration for NLP misinformation mitigation solutions. We first investigate the calibration of sample-based consistency methods that exploit distinct features of consistency across sample sizes and stochastic levels. Next, we evaluate the performance and distributional shift of a robust numeric verbalization prompt across single vs. two-step confidence elicitation procedure. We also compare the performance of the same prompt with different versions of GPT and different numerical scales. Finally, we combine the sample-based consistency and verbalized methods to propose a hybrid framework that yields a better uncertainty estimation for GPT models. Overall, our work proposes novel uncertainty quantification methods that will improve the reliability of Large Language Models in misinformation mitigation applications.

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Quantifying learning-style adaptation in effectiveness of LLM teaching
Ruben Weijers | Gabrielle Fidelis de Castilho | Jean-François Godbout | Reihaneh Rabbany | Kellin Pelrine
Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Personalization of Generative AI Systems (PERSONALIZE 2024)

This preliminary study aims to investigate whether AI, when prompted based on individual learning styles, can effectively improve comprehension and learning experiences in educational settings. It involves tailoring LLMs baseline prompts and comparing the results of a control group receiving standard content and an experimental group receiving learning style-tailored content. Preliminary results suggest that GPT-4 can generate responses aligned with various learning styles, indicating the potential for enhanced engagement and comprehension. However, these results also reveal challenges, including the model’s tendency for sycophantic behavior and variability in responses. Our findings suggest that a more sophisticated prompt engineering approach is required for integrating AI into education (AIEd) to improve educational outcomes.

2023

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Towards Reliable Misinformation Mitigation: Generalization, Uncertainty, and GPT-4
Kellin Pelrine | Anne Imouza | Camille Thibault | Meilina Reksoprodjo | Caleb Gupta | Joel Christoph | Jean-François Godbout | Reihaneh Rabbany
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Misinformation poses a critical societal challenge, and current approaches have yet to produce an effective solution. We propose focusing on generalization, uncertainty, and how to leverage recent large language models, in order to create more practical tools to evaluate information veracity in contexts where perfect classification is impossible. We first demonstrate that GPT-4 can outperform prior methods in multiple settings and languages. Next, we explore generalization, revealing that GPT-4 and RoBERTa-large exhibit differences in failure modes. Third, we propose techniques to handle uncertainty that can detect impossible examples and strongly improve outcomes. We also discuss results on other language models, temperature, prompting, versioning, explainability, and web retrieval, each one providing practical insights and directions for future research. Finally, we publish the LIAR-New dataset with novel paired English and French misinformation data and Possibility labels that indicate if there is sufficient context for veracity evaluation. Overall, this research lays the groundwork for future tools that can drive real-world progress to combat misinformation.

2014

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Predicting Party Affiliations from European Parliament Debates
Bjørn Høyland | Jean-François Godbout | Emanuele Lapponi | Erik Velldal
Proceedings of the ACL 2014 Workshop on Language Technologies and Computational Social Science