Jean-Pierre Lorré


2020

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Speaker-change Aware CRF for Dialogue Act Classification
Guokan Shang | Antoine Tixier | Michalis Vazirgiannis | Jean-Pierre Lorré
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Recent work in Dialogue Act (DA) classification approaches the task as a sequence labeling problem, using neural network models coupled with a Conditional Random Field (CRF) as the last layer. CRF models the conditional probability of the target DA label sequence given the input utterance sequence. However, the task involves another important input sequence, that of speakers, which is ignored by previous work. To address this limitation, this paper proposes a simple modification of the CRF layer that takes speaker-change into account. Experiments on the SwDA corpus show that our modified CRF layer outperforms the original one, with very wide margins for some DA labels. Further, visualizations demonstrate that our CRF layer can learn meaningful, sophisticated transition patterns between DA label pairs conditioned on speaker-change in an end-to-end way. Code is publicly available.

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Energy-based Self-attentive Learning of Abstractive Communities for Spoken Language Understanding
Guokan Shang | Antoine Tixier | Michalis Vazirgiannis | Jean-Pierre Lorré
Proceedings of the 1st Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 10th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing

Abstractive community detection is an important spoken language understanding task, whose goal is to group utterances in a conversation according to whether they can be jointly summarized by a common abstractive sentence. This paper provides a novel approach to this task. We first introduce a neural contextual utterance encoder featuring three types of self-attention mechanisms. We then train it using the siamese and triplet energy-based meta-architectures. Experiments on the AMI corpus show that our system outperforms multiple energy-based and non-energy based baselines from the state-of-the-art. Code and data are publicly available.

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LinTO Platform: A Smart Open Voice Assistant for Business Environments
Ilyes Rebai | Sami Benhamiche | Kate Thompson | Zied Sellami | Damien Laine | Jean-Pierre Lorré
Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Language Technology Platforms

In this paper, we present LinTO, an intelligent voice platform and smart room assistant for improving efficiency and productivity in business. Our objective is to build a Spoken Language Understanding system that maintains high performance in both Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) and Natural Language Processing while being portable and scalable. In this paper we describe the LinTO architecture and our approach to ASR engine training which takes advantage of recent advances in deep learning while guaranteeing high-performance real-time processing. Unlike the existing solutions, the LinTO platform is open source for commercial and non-commercial use

2019

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Weak Supervision for Learning Discourse Structure
Sonia Badene | Kate Thompson | Jean-Pierre Lorré | Nicholas Asher
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

This paper provides a detailed comparison of a data programming approach with (i) off-the-shelf, state-of-the-art deep learning architectures that optimize their representations (BERT) and (ii) handcrafted-feature approaches previously used in the discourse analysis literature. We compare these approaches on the task of learning discourse structure for multi-party dialogue. The data programming paradigm offered by the Snorkel framework allows a user to label training data using expert-composed heuristics, which are then transformed via the “generative step” into probability distributions of the class labels given the data. We show that on our task the generative model outperforms both deep learning architectures as well as more traditional ML approaches when learning discourse structure—it even outperforms the combination of deep learning methods and hand-crafted features. We also implement several strategies for “decoding” our generative model output in order to improve our results. We conclude that weak supervision methods hold great promise as a means for creating and improving data sets for discourse structure.

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Apprentissage faiblement supervisé de la structure discursive (Learning discourse structure using weak supervision )
Sonia Badene | Catherine Thompson | Nicholas Asher | Jean-Pierre Lorré
Actes de la Conférence sur le Traitement Automatique des Langues Naturelles (TALN) PFIA 2019. Volume II : Articles courts

L’avènement des techniques d’apprentissage automatique profond a fait naître un besoin énorme de données d’entraînement. De telles données d’entraînement sont extrêmement coûteuses à créer, surtout lorsqu’une expertise dans le domaine est requise. L’une de ces tâches est l’apprentissage de la structure sémantique du discours, tâche très complexe avec des structures récursives avec des données éparses, mais qui est essentielle pour extraire des informations sémantiques profondes du texte. Nous décrivons nos expérimentations sur l’attachement des unités discursives pour former une structure, en utilisant le paradigme du data programming dans lequel peu ou pas d’annotations sont utilisées pour construire un ensemble de données d’entraînement “bruité”. Le corpus de dialogues utilisé illustre des contraintes à la fois linguistiques et non-linguistiques intéressantes qui doivent être apprises. Nous nous concentrons sur la structure des règles utilisées pour construire un modèle génératif et montrons la compétitivité de notre approche par rapport à l’apprentissage supervisé classique.

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Data Programming for Learning Discourse Structure
Sonia Badene | Kate Thompson | Jean-Pierre Lorré | Nicholas Asher
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

This paper investigates the advantages and limits of data programming for the task of learning discourse structure. The data programming paradigm implemented in the Snorkel framework allows a user to label training data using expert-composed heuristics, which are then transformed via the “generative step” into probability distributions of the class labels given the training candidates. These results are later generalized using a discriminative model. Snorkel’s attractive promise to create a large amount of annotated data from a smaller set of training data by unifying the output of a set of heuristics has yet to be used for computationally difficult tasks, such as that of discourse attachment, in which one must decide where a given discourse unit attaches to other units in a text in order to form a coherent discourse structure. Although approaching this problem using Snorkel requires significant modifications to the structure of the heuristics, we show that weak supervision methods can be more than competitive with classical supervised learning approaches to the attachment problem.

2018

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Unsupervised Abstractive Meeting Summarization with Multi-Sentence Compression and Budgeted Submodular Maximization
Guokan Shang | Wensi Ding | Zekun Zhang | Antoine Tixier | Polykarpos Meladianos | Michalis Vazirgiannis | Jean-Pierre Lorré
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We introduce a novel graph-based framework for abstractive meeting speech summarization that is fully unsupervised and does not rely on any annotations. Our work combines the strengths of multiple recent approaches while addressing their weaknesses. Moreover, we leverage recent advances in word embeddings and graph degeneracy applied to NLP to take exterior semantic knowledge into account, and to design custom diversity and informativeness measures. Experiments on the AMI and ICSI corpus show that our system improves on the state-of-the-art. Code and data are publicly available, and our system can be interactively tested.