Understanding manipulated media, from automatically generated ‘deepfakes’ to manually edited ones, raises novel research challenges. Because the vast majority of edited or manipulated images are benign, such as photoshopped images for visual enhancements, the key challenge is to understand the complex layers of underlying intents of media edits and their implications with respect to disinformation. In this paper, we study Edited Media Frames, a new formalism to understand visual media manipulation as structured annotations with respect to the intents, emotional reactions, attacks on individuals, and the overall implications of disinformation. We introduce a dataset for our task, EMU, with 56k question-answer pairs written in rich natural language. We evaluate a wide variety of vision-and-language models for our task, and introduce a new model PELICAN, which builds upon recent progress in pretrained multimodal representations. Our model obtains promising results on our dataset, with humans rating its answers as accurate 48.2% of the time. At the same time, there is still much work to be done – and we provide analysis that highlights areas for further progress.
We introduce a general framework for abstractive summarization with factual consistency and distinct modeling of the narrative flow in an output summary. Our work addresses current limitations of models for abstractive summarization that often hallucinate information or generate summaries with coherence issues. To generate abstractive summaries with factual consistency and narrative flow, we propose Cooperative Generator-Discriminator Networks (Co-opNet), a novel transformer-based framework where the generator works with a discriminator architecture to compose coherent long-form summaries. We explore four different discriminator objectives which each capture a different aspect of coherence, including whether salient spans of generated abstracts are hallucinated or appear in the input context, and the likelihood of sentence adjacency in generated abstracts. We measure the ability of Co-opNet to learn these objectives with arXiv scientific papers, using the abstracts as a proxy for gold long-form scientific article summaries. Empirical results from automatic and human evaluations demonstrate that Co-opNet learns to summarize with considerably improved global coherence compared to competitive baselines.
Pretrained deep contextual representations have advanced the state-of-the-art on various commonsense NLP tasks, but we lack a concrete understanding of the capability of these models. Thus, we investigate and challenge several aspects of BERT’s commonsense representation abilities. First, we probe BERT’s ability to classify various object attributes, demonstrating that BERT shows a strong ability in encoding various commonsense features in its embedding space, but is still deficient in many areas. Next, we show that, by augmenting BERT’s pretraining data with additional data related to the deficient attributes, we are able to improve performance on a downstream commonsense reasoning task while using a minimal amount of data. Finally, we develop a method of fine-tuning knowledge graphs embeddings alongside BERT and show the continued importance of explicit knowledge graphs.
We introduce a simple yet effective method of integrating contextual embeddings with commonsense graph embeddings, dubbed BERT Infused Graphs: Matching Over Other embeDdings. First, we introduce a preprocessing method to improve the speed of querying knowledge bases. Then, we develop a method of creating knowledge embeddings from each knowledge base. We introduce a method of aligning tokens between two misaligned tokenization methods. Finally, we contribute a method of contextualizing BERT after combining with knowledge base embeddings. We also show BERTs tendency to correct lower accuracy question types. Our model achieves a higher accuracy than BERT, and we score fifth on the official leaderboard of the shared task and score the highest without any additional language model pretraining.