Jeff Phillips


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Quantized Wasserstein Procrustes Alignment of Word Embedding Spaces
Prince O Aboagye | Yan Zheng | Michael Yeh | Junpeng Wang | Zhongfang Zhuang | Huiyuan Chen | Liang Wang | Wei Zhang | Jeff Phillips
Proceedings of the 15th biennial conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas (Volume 1: Research Track)

Motivated by the widespread interest in the cross-lingual transfer of NLP models from high resource to low resource languages, research on Cross-lingual word embeddings (CLWEs) has gained much popularity over the years. Among the most successful and attractive CLWE models are the unsupervised CLWE models. These unsupervised CLWE models pose the alignment task as a Wasserstein-Procrustes problem aiming to estimate a permutation matrix and an orthogonal matrix jointly. Most existing unsupervised CLWE models resort to Optimal Transport (OT) based methods to estimate the permutation matrix. However, linear programming algorithms and approximate OT solvers via Sinkhorn for computing the permutation matrix scale cubically and quadratically, respectively, in the input size. This makes it impractical and infeasible to compute OT distances exactly for larger sample size, resulting in a poor approximation quality of the permutation matrix and subsequently a less robust learned transfer function or mapper. This paper proposes an unsupervised projection-based CLWE model called quantized Wasserstein Procrustes (qWP) that jointly estimates a permutation matrix and an orthogonal matrix. qWP relies on a quantization step to estimate the permutation matrix between two probability distributions or measures. This approach substantially improves the approximation quality of empirical OT solvers given fixed computational cost. We demonstrate that qWP achieves state-of-the-art results on the Bilingual lexicon Induction (BLI) task.


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Harms of Gender Exclusivity and Challenges in Non-Binary Representation in Language Technologies
Sunipa Dev | Masoud Monajatipoor | Anaelia Ovalle | Arjun Subramonian | Jeff Phillips | Kai-Wei Chang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Gender is widely discussed in the context of language tasks and when examining the stereotypes propagated by language models. However, current discussions primarily treat gender as binary, which can perpetuate harms such as the cyclical erasure of non-binary gender identities. These harms are driven by model and dataset biases, which are consequences of the non-recognition and lack of understanding of non-binary genders in society. In this paper, we explain the complexity of gender and language around it, and survey non-binary persons to understand harms associated with the treatment of gender as binary in English language technologies. We also detail how current language representations (e.g., GloVe, BERT) capture and perpetuate these harms and related challenges that need to be acknowledged and addressed for representations to equitably encode gender information.