Jia Li


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Self-Edit: Fault-Aware Code Editor for Code Generation
Kechi Zhang | Zhuo Li | Jia Li | Ge Li | Zhi Jin
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Large language models (LLMs) have demonstrated an impressive ability to generate codes on competitive programming tasks. However, with limited sample numbers, LLMs still suffer from poor accuracy. Inspired by the process of human programming, we propose a generate-and-edit approach named Self-Edit that utilizes execution results of the generated code from LLMs to improve the code quality on the competitive programming task. We execute the generated code on the example test case provided in the question and wrap execution results into a supplementary comment. Utilizing this comment as guidance, our fault-aware code editor is employed to correct errors in the generated code. We perform extensive evaluations across two competitive programming datasets with nine different LLMs. Compared to directly generating from LLMs, our approach can improve the average of pass@1 by 89% on APPS-dev, 31% on APPS-test, and 48% on HumanEval over nine popular code generation LLMs with parameter sizes ranging from 110M to 175B. Compared to other post-processing methods, our method demonstrates superior accuracy and efficiency.

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Alleviating Over-smoothing for Unsupervised Sentence Representation
Nuo Chen | Linjun Shou | Jian Pei | Ming Gong | Bowen Cao | Jianhui Chang | Jia Li | Daxin Jiang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Currently, learning better unsupervised sentence representations is the pursuit of many natural language processing communities. Lots of approaches based on pre-trained language models (PLMs) and contrastive learning have achieved promising results on this task. Experimentally, we observe that the over-smoothing problem reduces the capacity of these powerful PLMs, leading to sub-optimal sentence representations. In this paper, we present a Simple method named Self-Contrastive Learning (SSCL) to alleviate this issue, which samples negatives from PLMs intermediate layers, improving the quality of the sentence representation. Our proposed method is quite simple and can be easily extended to various state-of-the-art models for performance boosting, which can be seen as a plug-and-play contrastive framework for learning unsupervised sentence representation. Extensive results prove that SSCL brings the superior performance improvements of different strong baselines (e.g., BERT and SimCSE) on Semantic Textual Similarity and Transfer datasets

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Structural Contrastive Pretraining for Cross-Lingual Comprehension
Nuo Chen | Linjun Shou | Tengtao Song | Ming Gong | Jian Pei | Jianhui Chang | Daxin Jiang | Jia Li
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

To present, multilingual language models trained using various pre-training tasks like mask language modeling (MLM) have yielded encouraging results on a wide range of downstream tasks. Despite the promising performances, structural knowledge in cross-lingual corpus is less explored in current works, leading to the semantic misalignment. In this paper, we propose a new pre-training task named Structural Contrast Pretraining (SCP) to align the structural words in a parallel sentence, enhancing the models’ ability to comprehend cross-lingual representations. Concretely, each structural word in source and target languages is regarded as a positive pair in SCP. Since contrastive learning compares positive and negative pairs, an increase in the frequency of negative pairings could enhance the performance of the resulting model. Therefore, we further propose Cross-lingual Momentum Contrast (CL-MoCo) to increase the number of negative pairs by maintaining a large size of the queue. CL-MoCo extends the original Moco approach into cross-lingual training and jointly optimizes the source-to-target language and target-to-source language representations, resulting in a more suitable encoder for cross-lingual transfer. We conduct extensive experiments to validate the proposed approach on three cross-lingual tasks across five datasets such as MLQA, WikiAnn, etc, and results prove the effectiveness of our method.

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A Fused Gromov-Wasserstein Framework for Unsupervised Knowledge Graph Entity Alignment
Jianheng Tang | Kangfei Zhao | Jia Li
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Entity alignment is the task of identifying corresponding entities across different knowledge graphs (KGs). Although recent embedding-based entity alignment methods have shown significant advancements, they still struggle to fully utilize KG structural information. In this paper, we introduce FGWEA, an unsupervised entity alignment framework that leverages the Fused Gromov-Wasserstein (FGW) distance, allowing for a comprehensive comparison of entity semantics and KG structures within a joint optimization framework. To address the computational challenges associated with optimizing FGW, we devise a three-stage progressive optimization algorithm. It starts with a basic semantic embedding matching, proceeds to approximate cross-KG structural and relational similarity matching based on iterative updates of high-confidence entity links, and ultimately culminates in a global structural comparison between KGs. We perform extensive experiments on four entity alignment datasets covering 14 distinct KGs across five languages. Without any supervision or hyper-parameter tuning, FGWEA surpasses 21 competitive baselines, including cutting-edge supervised entity alignment methods. Our code is available at https://github.com/squareRoot3/FusedGW-Entity-Alignment.

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Large Language Models Meet Harry Potter: A Dataset for Aligning Dialogue Agents with Characters
Nuo Chen | Yan Wang | Haiyun Jiang | Deng Cai | Yuhan Li | Ziyang Chen | Longyue Wang | Jia Li
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

In recent years, Dialogue-style Large Language Models (LLMs) such as ChatGPT and GPT4 have demonstrated immense potential in constructing open-domain dialogue agents. However, aligning these agents with specific characters or individuals remains a considerable challenge due to the complexities of character representation and the lack of comprehensive annotations. In this paper, we introduce the Harry Potter Dialogue (HPD) dataset, designed to advance the study of dialogue agents and character alignment. The dataset encompasses all dialogue sessions (in both English and Chinese) from the Harry Potter series and is annotated with vital background information, including dialogue scenes, speakers, character relationships, and attributes. These extensive annotations may empower LLMs to unlock character-driven dialogue capabilities. Furthermore, it can serve as a universal benchmark for evaluating how well can a LLM aligning with a specific character. We benchmark LLMs on HPD using both fine-tuning and in-context learning settings. Evaluation results reveal that although there is substantial room for improvement in generating high-quality, character-aligned responses, the proposed dataset is valuable in guiding models toward responses that better align with the character of Harry Potter.

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Natural Response Generation for Chinese Reading Comprehension
Nuo Chen | Hongguang Li | Yinan Bao | Baoyuan Wang | Jia Li
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Machine reading comprehension (MRC) is an important area of conversation agents and draws a lot of attention. However, there is a notable limitation to current MRC benchmarks: The labeled answers are mostly either spans extracted from the target corpus or the choices of the given candidates, ignoring the natural aspect of high-quality responses. As a result, MRC models trained on these datasets can not generate human-like responses in real QA scenarios. To this end, we construct a new dataset called Penguin to promote the research of MRC, providing a training and test bed for natural response generation to real scenarios. Concretely, Penguin consists of 200k training data with high-quality fluent, and well-informed responses. Penguin is the first benchmark towards natural response generation in Chinese MRC on a relatively large scale. To address the challenges in Penguin, we develop two strong baselines: end-to-end and two-stage frameworks. Following that, we further design Prompt-BART: fine-tuning the pre-trained generative language models with a mixture of prefix prompts in Penguin. Extensive experiments validated the effectiveness of this design.

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Orca: A Few-shot Benchmark for Chinese Conversational Machine Reading Comprehension
Nuo Chen | Hongguang Li | Junqing He | Yinan Bao | Xinshi Lin | Qi Yang | Jianfeng Liu | Ruyi Gan | Jiaxing Zhang | Baoyuan Wang | Jia Li
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

The conversational machine reading comprehension (CMRC) task aims to answer questions in conversations, which has been a hot research topic in recent years because of its wide applications. However, existing CMRC benchmarks in which each conversation is assigned a static passage are inconsistent with real scenarios. Thus, model’s comprehension ability towards real scenarios are hard to evaluate reasonably. To this end, we propose the first Chinese CMRC benchmark Orca and further provide zero-shot/few-shot settings to evaluate model’s generalization ability towards diverse domains. We collect 831 hot-topic driven conversations with 4,742 turns in total. Each turn of a conversation is assigned with a response-related passage, aiming to evaluate model’s comprehension ability more reasonably. The topics of conversations are collected from social media platform and cover 33 domains, trying to be consistent with real scenarios. Importantly, answers in Orca are all well-annotated natural responses rather than the specific spans or short phrase in previous datasets. Besides, we implement three strong baselines to tackle the challenge in Orca. The results indicate the great challenge of our CMRC benchmark.


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ConTinTin: Continual Learning from Task Instructions
Wenpeng Yin | Jia Li | Caiming Xiong
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

The mainstream machine learning paradigms for NLP often work with two underlying presumptions. First, the target task is predefined and static; a system merely needs to learn to solve it exclusively. Second, the supervision of a task mainly comes from a set of labeled examples. A question arises: how to build a system that can keep learning new tasks from their instructions?This work defines a new learning paradigm ConTinTin (Continual Learning from Task Instructions), in which a system should learn a sequence of new tasks one by one, each task is explained by a piece of textual instruction. The system is required to (i) generate the expected outputs of a new task by learning from its instruction, (ii) transfer the knowledge acquired from upstream tasks to help solve downstream tasks (i.e., forward-transfer), and (iii) retain or even improve the performance on earlier tasks after learning new tasks (i.e., backward-transfer). This new problem is studied on a stream of more than 60 tasks, each equipped with an instruction. Technically, our method InstructionSpeak contains two strategies that make full use of task instructions to improve forward-transfer and backward-transfer: one is to learn from negative outputs, the other is to re-visit instructions of previous tasks. To our knowledge, this is the first time to study ConTinTin in NLP. In addition to the problem formulation and our promising approach, this work also contributes to providing rich analyses for the community to better understand this novel learning problem.


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Sampling Matters! An Empirical Study of Negative Sampling Strategies for Learning of Matching Models in Retrieval-based Dialogue Systems
Jia Li | Chongyang Tao | Wei Wu | Yansong Feng | Dongyan Zhao | Rui Yan
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

We study how to sample negative examples to automatically construct a training set for effective model learning in retrieval-based dialogue systems. Following an idea of dynamically adapting negative examples to matching models in learning, we consider four strategies including minimum sampling, maximum sampling, semi-hard sampling, and decay-hard sampling. Empirical studies on two benchmarks with three matching models indicate that compared with the widely used random sampling strategy, although the first two strategies lead to performance drop, the latter two ones can bring consistent improvement to the performance of all the models on both benchmarks.


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AirDialogue: An Environment for Goal-Oriented Dialogue Research
Wei Wei | Quoc Le | Andrew Dai | Jia Li
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Recent progress in dialogue generation has inspired a number of studies on dialogue systems that are capable of accomplishing tasks through natural language interactions. A promising direction among these studies is the use of reinforcement learning techniques, such as self-play, for training dialogue agents. However, current datasets are limited in size, and the environment for training agents and evaluating progress is relatively unsophisticated. We present AirDialogue, a large dataset that contains 301,427 goal-oriented conversations. To collect this dataset, we create a context-generator which provides travel and flight restrictions. We then ask human annotators to play the role of a customer or an agent and interact with the goal of successfully booking a trip given the restrictions. Key to our environment is the ease of evaluating the success of the dialogue, which is achieved by using ground-truth states (e.g., the flight being booked) generated by the restrictions. Any dialogue agent that does not generate the correct states is considered to fail. Our experimental results indicate that state-of-the-art dialogue models can only achieve a score of 0.17 while humans can reach a score of 0.91, which suggests significant opportunities for future improvement.


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Determining Gains Acquired from Word Embedding Quantitatively Using Discrete Distribution Clustering
Jianbo Ye | Yanran Li | Zhaohui Wu | James Z. Wang | Wenjie Li | Jia Li
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Word embeddings have become widely-used in document analysis. While a large number of models for mapping words to vector spaces have been developed, it remains undetermined how much net gain can be achieved over traditional approaches based on bag-of-words. In this paper, we propose a new document clustering approach by combining any word embedding with a state-of-the-art algorithm for clustering empirical distributions. By using the Wasserstein distance between distributions, the word-to-word semantic relationship is taken into account in a principled way. The new clustering method is easy to use and consistently outperforms other methods on a variety of data sets. More importantly, the method provides an effective framework for determining when and how much word embeddings contribute to document analysis. Experimental results with multiple embedding models are reported.


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Proposition méthodologique pour la détection automatique de Community Manager. Étude multilingue sur un corpus relatif à la Junk Food
Johan Ferguth | Aurélie Jouannet | Asma Zamiti | Yunhe Wu | Jia Li | Antonina Bondarenko | Damien Nouvel | Mathieu Valette
Actes de la 22e conférence sur le Traitement Automatique des Langues Naturelles. Articles courts

Dans cet article, nous présentons une méthodologie pour l’identification de messages suspectés d’être produits par des Community Managers à des fins commerciales déguisées dans des documents du Web 2.0. Le champ d’application est la malbouffe (junkfood) et le corpus est multilingue (anglais, chinois, français). Nous exposons dans un premier temps la stratégie de constitution et d’annotation de nos corpus, en explicitant notamment notre guide d’annotation, puis nous développons la méthode adoptée, basée sur la combinaison d’une analyse textométrique et d’un apprentissage supervisé.


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Towards Identifying Unresolved Discussions in Student Online Forums
Jihie Kim | Jia Li | Taehwan Kim
Proceedings of the NAACL HLT 2010 Fifth Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications