Jia Pan


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Towards Making the Most of Cross-Lingual Transfer for Zero-Shot Neural Machine Translation
Guanhua Chen | Shuming Ma | Yun Chen | Dongdong Zhang | Jia Pan | Wenping Wang | Furu Wei
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

This paper demonstrates that multilingual pretraining and multilingual fine-tuning are both critical for facilitating cross-lingual transfer in zero-shot translation, where the neural machine translation (NMT) model is tested on source languages unseen during supervised training. Following this idea, we present SixT+, a strong many-to-English NMT model that supports 100 source languages but is trained with a parallel dataset in only six source languages. SixT+ initializes the decoder embedding and the full encoder with XLM-R large and then trains the encoder and decoder layers with a simple two-stage training strategy. SixT+ achieves impressive performance on many-to-English translation. It significantly outperforms CRISS and m2m-100, two strong multilingual NMT systems, with an average gain of 7.2 and 5.0 BLEU respectively. Additionally, SixT+ offers a set of model parameters that can be further fine-tuned to other unsupervised tasks. We demonstrate that adding SixT+ initialization outperforms state-of-the-art explicitly designed unsupervised NMT models on Si<->En and Ne<->En by over 1.2 average BLEU. When applied to zero-shot cross-lingual abstractive summarization, it produces an average performance gain of 12.3 ROUGE-L over mBART-ft. We conduct detailed analyses to understand the key ingredients of SixT+, including multilinguality of the auxiliary parallel data, positional disentangled encoder, and the cross-lingual transferability of its encoder.


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Zero-Shot Cross-Lingual Transfer of Neural Machine Translation with Multilingual Pretrained Encoders
Guanhua Chen | Shuming Ma | Yun Chen | Li Dong | Dongdong Zhang | Jia Pan | Wenping Wang | Furu Wei
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Previous work mainly focuses on improving cross-lingual transfer for NLU tasks with a multilingual pretrained encoder (MPE), or improving the performance on supervised machine translation with BERT. However, it is under-explored that whether the MPE can help to facilitate the cross-lingual transferability of NMT model. In this paper, we focus on a zero-shot cross-lingual transfer task in NMT. In this task, the NMT model is trained with parallel dataset of only one language pair and an off-the-shelf MPE, then it is directly tested on zero-shot language pairs. We propose SixT, a simple yet effective model for this task. SixT leverages the MPE with a two-stage training schedule and gets further improvement with a position disentangled encoder and a capacity-enhanced decoder. Using this method, SixT significantly outperforms mBART, a pretrained multilingual encoder-decoder model explicitly designed for NMT, with an average improvement of 7.1 BLEU on zero-shot any-to-English test sets across 14 source languages. Furthermore, with much less training computation cost and training data, our model achieves better performance on 15 any-to-English test sets than CRISS and m2m-100, two strong multilingual NMT baselines.