Jiaan Wang


2023

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Understanding Translationese in Cross-Lingual Summarization
Jiaan Wang | Fandong Meng | Yunlong Liang | Tingyi Zhang | Jiarong Xu | Zhixu Li | Jie Zhou
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Given a document in a source language, cross-lingual summarization (CLS) aims at generating a concise summary in a different target language. Unlike monolingual summarization (MS), naturally occurring source-language documents paired with target-language summaries are rare. To collect large-scale CLS data, existing datasets typically involve translation in their creation. However, the translated text is distinguished from the text originally written in that language, i.e., translationese. In this paper, we first confirm that different approaches of constructing CLS datasets will lead to different degrees of translationese. Then we systematically investigate how translationese affects CLS model evaluation and performance when it appears in source documents or target summaries. In detail, we find that (1) the translationese in documents or summaries of test sets might lead to the discrepancy between human judgment and automatic evaluation; (2) the translationese in training sets would harm model performance in real-world applications; (3) though machine-translated documents involve translationese, they are very useful for building CLS systems on low-resource languages under specific training strategies. Lastly, we give suggestions for future CLS research including dataset and model developments. We hope that our work could let researchers notice the phenomenon of translationese in CLS and take it into account in the future.

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D2TV: Dual Knowledge Distillation and Target-oriented Vision Modeling for Many-to-Many Multimodal Summarization
Yunlong Liang | Fandong Meng | Jiaan Wang | Jinan Xu | Yufeng Chen | Jie Zhou
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Many-to-many multimodal summarization (M3S) task aims to generate summaries in any language with document inputs in any language and the corresponding image sequence, which essentially comprises of multimodal monolingual summarization (MMS) and multimodal cross-lingual summarization (MXLS) tasks. Although much work has been devoted to either MMS or MXLS, little research pays attention to the M3S task. Besides, existing studies mainly focus on 1) utilizing MMS to enhance MXLS via knowledge distillation without considering the performance of MMS or 2) improving MMS models by filtering summary-unrelated visual features with implicit learning or explicitly complex training objectives. In this paper, we first introduce a general and practical task, i.e., M3S. Further, we propose a dual knowledge distillation and target-oriented vision modeling framework for the M3S task. Specifically, the dual knowledge distillation method guarantees that the knowledge of MMS and MXLS can be transferred to each other and thus mutually prompt both of them. To offer target-oriented visual features, a simple yet effective target-oriented contrastive objective is designed and responsible for discarding needless visual information. Extensive experiments on the many-to-many setting show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Additionally, we contribute a many-to-many multimodal summarization (lmttM3Sum) dataset with 44 languages to facilitate future research.

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Summary-Oriented Vision Modeling for Multimodal Abstractive Summarization
Yunlong Liang | Fandong Meng | Jinan Xu | Jiaan Wang | Yufeng Chen | Jie Zhou
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

The goal of multimodal abstractive summarization (MAS) is to produce a concise summary given the multimodal data (text and vision). Existing studies on MAS mainly focus on how to effectively use the extracted visual features, having achieved impressive success on the high-resource English dataset. However, less attention has been paid to the quality of the visual features to the summary, which may limit the model performance, especially in the low- and zero-resource scenarios. In this paper, we propose to improve the summary quality through summary-oriented visual features. To this end, we devise two auxiliary tasks including vision to summary task and masked image modeling task. Together with the main summarization task, we optimize the MAS model via the training objectives of all these tasks. By these means, the MAS model can be enhanced by capturing the summary-oriented visual features, thereby yielding more accurate summaries. Experiments on 44 languages, covering mid-high-, low-, and zero-resource scenarios, verify the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed approach, which achieves state-of-the-art performance under all scenarios. Additionally, we will contribute a large-scale multilingual multimodal abstractive summarization (MM-Sum) dataset to the research community.

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Towards Unifying Multi-Lingual and Cross-Lingual Summarization
Jiaan Wang | Fandong Meng | Duo Zheng | Yunlong Liang | Zhixu Li | Jianfeng Qu | Jie Zhou
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

To adapt text summarization to the multilingual world, previous work proposes multi-lingual summarization (MLS) and cross-lingual summarization (CLS). However, these two tasks have been studied separately due to the different definitions, which limits the compatible and systematic research on both of them. In this paper, we aim to unify MLS and CLS into a more general setting, i.e., many-to-many summarization (M2MS), where a single model could process documents in any language and generate their summaries also in any language. As the first step towards M2MS, we conduct preliminary studies to show that M2MS can better transfer task knowledge across different languages than MLS and CLS. Furthermore, we propose Pisces, a pre-trained M2MS model that learns language modeling, cross-lingual ability and summarization ability via three-stage pre-training. Experimental results indicate that our Pisces significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art baselines, especially in the zero-shot directions, where there is no training data from the source-language documents to the target-language summaries.

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Is ChatGPT a Good NLG Evaluator? A Preliminary Study
Jiaan Wang | Yunlong Liang | Fandong Meng | Zengkui Sun | Haoxiang Shi | Zhixu Li | Jinan Xu | Jianfeng Qu | Jie Zhou
Proceedings of the 4th New Frontiers in Summarization Workshop

Recently, the emergence of ChatGPT has attracted wide attention from the computational linguistics community. Many prior studies have shown that ChatGPT achieves remarkable performance on various NLP tasks in terms of automatic evaluation metrics. However, the ability of ChatGPT to serve as an evaluation metric is still underexplored. Considering assessing the quality of natural language generation (NLG) models is an arduous task and NLG metrics notoriously show their poor correlation with human judgments, we wonder whether ChatGPT is a good NLG evaluation metric. In this report, we provide a preliminary meta-evaluation on ChatGPT to show its reliability as an NLG metric. In detail, we regard ChatGPT as a human evaluator and give task-specific (e.g., summarization) and aspect-specific (e.g., relevance) instruction to prompt ChatGPT to evaluate the generated results of NLG models. We conduct experiments on five NLG meta-evaluation datasets (including summarization, story generation and data-to-text tasks). Experimental results show that compared with previous automatic metrics, ChatGPT achieves state-of-the-art or competitive correlation with human judgments in most cases. In addition, we find that the effectiveness of the ChatGPT evaluator might be influenced by the creation method of the meta-evaluation datasets. For the meta-evaluation datasets which are created greatly depending on the reference and thus are biased, the ChatGPT evaluator might lose its effectiveness. We hope our preliminary study could prompt the emergence of a general-purposed reliable NLG metric.

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Zero-Shot Cross-Lingual Summarization via Large Language Models
Jiaan Wang | Yunlong Liang | Fandong Meng | Beiqi Zou | Zhixu Li | Jianfeng Qu | Jie Zhou
Proceedings of the 4th New Frontiers in Summarization Workshop

Given a document in a source language, cross-lingual summarization (CLS) aims to generate a summary in a different target language. Recently, the emergence of Large Language Models (LLMs), such as GPT-3.5, ChatGPT and GPT-4, has attracted wide attention from the computational linguistics community. However, it is not yet known the performance of LLMs on CLS. In this report, we empirically use various prompts to guide LLMs to perform zero-shot CLS from different paradigms (i.e., end-to-end and pipeline), and provide a preliminary evaluation on the generated summaries. We find that ChatGPT and GPT-4 originally prefer to produce lengthy summaries with detailed information. These two LLMs can further balance informativeness and conciseness with the help of an interactive prompt, significantly improving their CLS performance. Experimental results on three widely-used CLS datasets show that GPT-4 achieves state-of-the-art zero-shot CLS performance, and performs competitively compared with the fine-tuned mBART-50. Moreover, we also find some multi-lingual and bilingual LLMs (i.e., BLOOMZ, ChatGLM-6B, Vicuna-13B and ChatYuan) have limited zero-shot CLS ability. Due to the composite nature of CLS, which requires models to perform summarization and translation simultaneously, accomplishing this task in a zero-shot manner is even a challenge for LLMs. Therefore, we sincerely hope and recommend future LLM research could use CLS as a testbed.

2022

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A Survey on Cross-Lingual Summarization
Jiaan Wang | Fandong Meng | Duo Zheng | Yunlong Liang | Zhixu Li | Jianfeng Qu | Jie Zhou
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 10

Cross-lingual summarization is the task of generating a summary in one language (e.g., English) for the given document(s) in a different language (e.g., Chinese). Under the globalization background, this task has attracted increasing attention of the computational linguistics community. Nevertheless, there still remains a lack of comprehensive review for this task. Therefore, we present the first systematic critical review on the datasets, approaches, and challenges in this field. Specifically, we carefully organize existing datasets and approaches according to different construction methods and solution paradigms, respectively. For each type of dataset or approach, we thoroughly introduce and summarize previous efforts and further compare them with each other to provide deeper analyses. In the end, we also discuss promising directions and offer our thoughts to facilitate future research. This survey is for both beginners and experts in cross-lingual summarization, and we hope it will serve as a starting point as well as a source of new ideas for researchers and engineers interested in this area.

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LayerConnect: Hypernetwork-Assisted Inter-Layer Connector to Enhance Parameter Efficiency
Haoxiang Shi | Rongsheng Zhang | Jiaan Wang | Cen Wang | Yinhe Zheng | Tetsuya Sakai
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Pre-trained Language Models (PLMs) are the cornerstone of the modern Natural Language Processing (NLP). However, as PLMs become heavier, fine tuning all their parameters loses their efficiency. Existing parameter-efficient methods generally focus on reducing the trainable parameters in PLMs but neglect the inference speed, which limits the ability to deploy PLMs. In this paper, we propose LayerConnect (hypernetwork-assisted inter-layer connectors) to enhance inference efficiency. Specifically, a light-weight connector with a linear structure is inserted between two Transformer layers, and the parameters inside each connector are tuned by a hypernetwork comprising an interpolator and a down-sampler. We perform extensive experiments on the widely used the GLUE benchmark. The experimental results verify the inference efficiency of our model. Compared to Adapter, our model parameters are reduced to approximately 11.75%, while the performance degradation is kept to less than 5% (2.5 points on average).

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Towards Unifying Reference Expression Generation and Comprehension
Duo Zheng | Tao Kong | Ya Jing | Jiaan Wang | Xiaojie Wang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Reference Expression Generation (REG) and Comprehension (REC) are two highly correlated tasks. Modeling REG and REC simultaneously for utilizing the relation between them is a promising way to improve both. However, the problem of distinct inputs, as well as building connections between them in a single model, brings challenges to the design and training of the joint model. To address the problems, we propose a unified model for REG and REC, named UniRef. It unifies these two tasks with the carefully-designed Image-Region-Text Fusion layer (IRTF), which fuses the image, region and text via the image cross-attention and region cross-attention. Additionally, IRTF could generate pseudo input regions for the REC task to enable a uniform way for sharing the identical representation space across the REC and REG. We further propose Vision-conditioned Masked Language Modeling (VMLM) and Text-Conditioned Region Prediction (TRP) to pre-train UniRef model on multi-granular corpora. The VMLM and TRP are directly related to REG and REC, respectively, but could help each other. We conduct extensive experiments on three benchmark datasets, RefCOCO, RefCOCO+ and RefCOCOg. Experimental results show that our model outperforms previous state-of-the-art methods on both REG and REC.

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ClidSum: A Benchmark Dataset for Cross-Lingual Dialogue Summarization
Jiaan Wang | Fandong Meng | Ziyao Lu | Duo Zheng | Zhixu Li | Jianfeng Qu | Jie Zhou
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We present ClidSum, a benchmark dataset towards building cross-lingual summarization systems on dialogue documents. It consists of 67k+ dialogue documents and 112k+ annotated summaries in different target languages. Based on the proposed ClidSum, we introduce two benchmark settings for supervised and semi-supervised scenarios, respectively. We then build various baseline systems in different paradigms (pipeline and end-to-end) and conduct extensive experiments on ClidSum to provide deeper analyses. Furthermore, we propose mDialBART which extends mBART via further pre-training, where the multiple objectives help the pre-trained model capture the structural characteristics as well as key content in dialogues and the transformation from source to the target language. Experimental results show the superiority of mDialBART, as an end-to-end model, outperforms strong pipeline models on ClidSum. Finally, we discuss specific challenges that current approaches faced with this task and give multiple promising directions for future research. We have released the dataset and code at https://github.com/krystalan/ClidSum.

2021

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Enhancing Visual Dialog Questioner with Entity-based Strategy Learning and Augmented Guesser
Duo Zheng | Zipeng Xu | Fandong Meng | Xiaojie Wang | Jiaan Wang | Jie Zhou
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Considering the importance of building a good Visual Dialog (VD) Questioner, many researchers study the topic under a Q-Bot-A-Bot image-guessing game setting, where the Questioner needs to raise a series of questions to collect information of an undisclosed image. Despite progress has been made in Supervised Learning (SL) and Reinforcement Learning (RL), issues still exist. Firstly, previous methods do not provide explicit and effective guidance for Questioner to generate visually related and informative questions. Secondly, the effect of RL is hampered by an incompetent component, i.e., the Guesser, who makes image predictions based on the generated dialogs and assigns rewards accordingly. To enhance VD Questioner: 1) we propose a Related entity enhanced Questioner (ReeQ) that generates questions under the guidance of related entities and learns entity-based questioning strategy from human dialogs; 2) we propose an Augmented Guesser that is strong and is optimized for VD especially. Experimental results on the VisDial v1.0 dataset show that our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance on both image-guessing task and question diversity. Human study further verifies that our model generates more visually related, informative and coherent questions.