Jiacheng Liu


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Generated Knowledge Prompting for Commonsense Reasoning
Jiacheng Liu | Alisa Liu | Ximing Lu | Sean Welleck | Peter West | Ronan Le Bras | Yejin Choi | Hannaneh Hajishirzi
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

It remains an open question whether incorporating external knowledge benefits commonsense reasoning while maintaining the flexibility of pretrained sequence models. To investigate this question, we develop generated knowledge prompting, which consists of generating knowledge from a language model, then providing the knowledge as additional input when answering a question. Our method does not require task-specific supervision for knowledge integration, or access to a structured knowledge base, yet it improves performance of large-scale, state-of-the-art models on four commonsense reasoning tasks, achieving state-of-the-art results on numerical commonsense (NumerSense), general commonsense (CommonsenseQA 2.0), and scientific commonsense (QASC) benchmarks. Generated knowledge prompting highlights large-scale language models as flexible sources of external knowledge for improving commonsense reasoning.Our code is available at github.com/liujch1998/GKP


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Phrase Grounding by Soft-Label Chain Conditional Random Field
Jiacheng Liu | Julia Hockenmaier
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

The phrase grounding task aims to ground each entity mention in a given caption of an image to a corresponding region in that image. Although there are clear dependencies between how different mentions of the same caption should be grounded, previous structured prediction methods that aim to capture such dependencies need to resort to approximate inference or non-differentiable losses. In this paper, we formulate phrase grounding as a sequence labeling task where we treat candidate regions as potential labels, and use neural chain Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) to model dependencies among regions for adjacent mentions. In contrast to standard sequence labeling tasks, the phrase grounding task is defined such that there may be multiple correct candidate regions. To address this multiplicity of gold labels, we define so-called Soft-Label Chain CRFs, and present an algorithm that enables convenient end-to-end training. Our method establishes a new state-of-the-art on phrase grounding on the Flickr30k Entities dataset. Analysis shows that our model benefits both from the entity dependencies captured by the CRF and from the soft-label training regime. Our code is available at github.com/liujch1998/SoftLabelCCRF

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CrossWeigh: Training Named Entity Tagger from Imperfect Annotations
Zihan Wang | Jingbo Shang | Liyuan Liu | Lihao Lu | Jiacheng Liu | Jiawei Han
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Everyone makes mistakes. So do human annotators when curating labels for named entity recognition (NER). Such label mistakes might hurt model training and interfere model comparison. In this study, we dive deep into one of the widely-adopted NER benchmark datasets, CoNLL03 NER. We are able to identify label mistakes in about 5.38% test sentences, which is a significant ratio considering that the state-of-the-art test F1 score is already around 93%. Therefore, we manually correct these label mistakes and form a cleaner test set. Our re-evaluation of popular models on this corrected test set leads to more accurate assessments, compared to those on the original test set. More importantly, we propose a simple yet effective framework, CrossWeigh, to handle label mistakes during NER model training. Specifically, it partitions the training data into several folds and train independent NER models to identify potential mistakes in each fold. Then it adjusts the weights of training data accordingly to train the final NER model. Extensive experiments demonstrate significant improvements of plugging various NER models into our proposed framework on three datasets. All implementations and corrected test set are available at our Github repo https://github.com/ZihanWangKi/CrossWeigh.