Jiacheng Ye


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Self-Adaptive In-Context Learning: An Information Compression Perspective for In-Context Example Selection and Ordering
Zhiyong Wu | Yaoxiang Wang | Jiacheng Ye | Lingpeng Kong
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Despite the surprising few-shot performance of in-context learning (ICL), it is still a common practice to randomly sample examples to serve as context. This paper advocates a new principle for ICL: self-adaptive in-context learning. The self-adaption mechanism is introduced to help each sample find an in-context example organization (i.e., selection and permutation) that can derive the correct prediction, thus maximizing performance. To validate the effectiveness of self-adaptive ICL, we propose a general select-then-rank framework and instantiate it with new selection and ranking algorithms. Upon extensive evaluation on eight different NLP datasets, our self-adaptive ICL method achieves a 40% relative improvement over the common practice setting. Further analysis reveals the enormous potential of self-adaptive ICL that it might be able to close the gap between ICL and finetuning given more advanced algorithms. Our code will be released to facilitate future research.

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OpenICL: An Open-Source Framework for In-context Learning
Zhenyu Wu | Yaoxiang Wang | Jiacheng Ye | Zhiyong Wu | Jiangtao Feng | Jingjing Xu | Yu Qiao
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 3: System Demonstrations)

In recent years, In-context Learning (ICL) has gained increasing attentionand emerged as the new paradigm for large language model (LLM) evaluation. Unlike traditional fine-tuning methods, ICL instead adapts the pre-trained models to unseen tasks without any parameter updates. However, the implementation of ICL is sophisticated due to the diverse retrieval and inference methods involved, as well as the varying pre-processing requirements for different models, datasets, and tasks. A unified and flexible framework for ICL is urgently needed to ease the implementation of the aforementioned components. To facilitate ICL research, we introduce OpenICL, an open-source toolkit for ICL and LLM evaluation. OpenICL is research-friendly with a highly flexible architecture that users can easily combine different components to suit their needs. It also provides various state-of-the-art retrieval and inference methods to streamline the process of adapting ICL to cutting-edge research. The effectiveness of OpenICL has been validated on a wide range of NLP tasks, including classification, QA, machine translation, and semantic parsing. As a side-product, we found OpenICL to be an efficient yet robust tool for LLMs evaluation. OpenICL is released at https://github.com/Shark-NLP/OpenICL.

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Generating Data for Symbolic Language with Large Language Models
Jiacheng Ye | Chengzu Li | Lingpeng Kong | Tao Yu
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

While large language models (LLMs) bring not only performance but also complexity, recent work has started to turn LLMs into data generators rather than task inferencers, where another affordable task model is trained for efficient deployment and inference. However, such an approach has primarily been applied to natural language tasks, and has not yet been explored for symbolic language tasks with complex structured outputs (e.g., semantic parsing and code generation). In this paper, we propose SymGen which utilizes LLMs for generating various annotation-expensive symbolic language data. SymGen consists of an informative prompt to steer generation and an agreement-based verifier to improve data correctness. We conduct extensive experiments on six symbolic language tasks across various settings. Compared with the LLMs, we demonstrate the 1%-sized task model can achieve comparable or better performance, largely cutting inference and deployment costs. We also show that generated data with only a few human demonstrations can be as effective as over 10 times the amount of human-annotated data when training the task model, saving a considerable amount of annotation effort. SymGen takes a step toward data generation for annotation-expensive complex tasks, and we release the code at URL.


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ZeroGen: Efficient Zero-shot Learning via Dataset Generation
Jiacheng Ye | Jiahui Gao | Qintong Li | Hang Xu | Jiangtao Feng | Zhiyong Wu | Tao Yu | Lingpeng Kong
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

There is a growing interest in dataset generation recently due to the superior generative capacity of large pre-trained language models (PLMs). In this paper, we study a flexible and efficient zero-short learning method, ZeroGen. Given a zero-shot task, we first generate a dataset from scratch using PLMs in an unsupervised manner. Then, we train a tiny task model (e.g., LSTM) under the supervision of the synthesized dataset. This approach allows highly efficient inference as the final task model only has orders of magnitude fewer parameters comparing to PLMs (e.g., GPT2-XL).Apart from being annotation-free and efficient, we argue that ZeroGen can also provide useful insights from the perspective of data-free model-agnostic knowledge distillation, and unreferenced text generation evaluation. Experiments and analysis on different NLP tasks, namely, text classification, question answering, and natural language inference, show the effectiveness of ZeroGen.

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ProGen: Progressive Zero-shot Dataset Generation via In-context Feedback
Jiacheng Ye | Jiahui Gao | Zhiyong Wu | Jiangtao Feng | Tao Yu | Lingpeng Kong
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Recently, dataset-generation-based zero-shot learning has shown promising results by training a task-specific model with a dataset synthesized from large pre-trained language models (PLMs). The final task-specific model often achieves compatible or even better performance than PLMs under the zero-shot setting, with orders of magnitude fewer parameters. However, synthetic datasets have their drawbacks. They have long being suffering from the low-quality issue (e.g., low informativeness, redundancy). This explains why the massive synthetic data does not lead to better performance – a scenario we would expect in the human-labeled data. To improve the quality in dataset synthesis, we propose a progressive zero-shot dataset generation framework, ProGen, which leverages the feedback from the task-specific model to guide the generation of new training data via in-context examples. Extensive experiments on five text classification datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. We also show ProGen achieves on-par or superior performance with only 1% synthetic dataset size, when comparing to baseline methods without in-context feedback.


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One2Set: Generating Diverse Keyphrases as a Set
Jiacheng Ye | Tao Gui | Yichao Luo | Yige Xu | Qi Zhang
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Recently, the sequence-to-sequence models have made remarkable progress on the task of keyphrase generation (KG) by concatenating multiple keyphrases in a predefined order as a target sequence during training. However, the keyphrases are inherently an unordered set rather than an ordered sequence. Imposing a predefined order will introduce wrong bias during training, which can highly penalize shifts in the order between keyphrases. In this work, we propose a new training paradigm One2Set without predefining an order to concatenate the keyphrases. To fit this paradigm, we propose a novel model that utilizes a fixed set of learned control codes as conditions to generate a set of keyphrases in parallel. To solve the problem that there is no correspondence between each prediction and target during training, we propose a K-step label assignment mechanism via bipartite matching, which greatly increases the diversity and reduces the repetition rate of generated keyphrases. The experimental results on multiple benchmarks demonstrate that our approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

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TextFlint: Unified Multilingual Robustness Evaluation Toolkit for Natural Language Processing
Xiao Wang | Qin Liu | Tao Gui | Qi Zhang | Yicheng Zou | Xin Zhou | Jiacheng Ye | Yongxin Zhang | Rui Zheng | Zexiong Pang | Qinzhuo Wu | Zhengyan Li | Chong Zhang | Ruotian Ma | Zichu Fei | Ruijian Cai | Jun Zhao | Xingwu Hu | Zhiheng Yan | Yiding Tan | Yuan Hu | Qiyuan Bian | Zhihua Liu | Shan Qin | Bolin Zhu | Xiaoyu Xing | Jinlan Fu | Yue Zhang | Minlong Peng | Xiaoqing Zheng | Yaqian Zhou | Zhongyu Wei | Xipeng Qiu | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

TextFlint is a multilingual robustness evaluation toolkit for NLP tasks that incorporates universal text transformation, task-specific transformation, adversarial attack, subpopulation, and their combinations to provide comprehensive robustness analyses. This enables practitioners to automatically evaluate their models from various aspects or to customize their evaluations as desired with just a few lines of code. TextFlint also generates complete analytical reports as well as targeted augmented data to address the shortcomings of the model in terms of its robustness. To guarantee acceptability, all the text transformations are linguistically based and all the transformed data selected (up to 100,000 texts) scored highly under human evaluation. To validate the utility, we performed large-scale empirical evaluations (over 67,000) on state-of-the-art deep learning models, classic supervised methods, and real-world systems. The toolkit is already available at https://github.com/textflint with all the evaluation results demonstrated at textflint.io.

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Heterogeneous Graph Neural Networks for Keyphrase Generation
Jiacheng Ye | Ruijian Cai | Tao Gui | Qi Zhang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

The encoder–decoder framework achieves state-of-the-art results in keyphrase generation (KG) tasks by predicting both present keyphrases that appear in the source document and absent keyphrases that do not. However, relying solely on the source document can result in generating uncontrollable and inaccurate absent keyphrases. To address these problems, we propose a novel graph-based method that can capture explicit knowledge from related references. Our model first retrieves some document-keyphrases pairs similar to the source document from a pre-defined index as references. Then a heterogeneous graph is constructed to capture relations with different levels of granularity of the source document and its retrieved references. To guide the decoding process, a hierarchical attention and copy mechanism is introduced, which directly copies appropriate words from both source document and its references based on their relevance and significance. The experimental results on multiple KG benchmarks show that the proposed model achieves significant improvements against other baseline models, especially with regard to the absent keyphrase prediction.

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Keyphrase Generation with Fine-Grained Evaluation-Guided Reinforcement Learning
Yichao Luo | Yige Xu | Jiacheng Ye | Xipeng Qiu | Qi Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Aiming to generate a set of keyphrases, Keyphrase Generation (KG) is a classical task for capturing the central idea from a given document. Based on Seq2Seq models, the previous reinforcement learning framework on KG tasks utilizes the evaluation metrics to further improve the well-trained neural models. However, these KG evaluation metrics such as F1@5 and F1@M are only aware of the exact correctness of predictions on phrase-level and ignore the semantic similarities between similar predictions and targets, which inhibits the model from learning deep linguistic patterns. In response to this problem, we propose a new fine-grained evaluation metric to improve the RL framework, which considers different granularities: token-level F1 score, edit distance, duplication, and prediction quantities. On the whole, the new framework includes two reward functions: the fine-grained evaluation score and the vanilla F1 score. This framework helps the model identifying some partial match phrases which can be further optimized as the exact match ones. Experiments on KG benchmarks show that our proposed training framework outperforms the previous RL training frameworks among all evaluation scores. In addition, our method can effectively ease the synonym problem and generate a higher quality prediction. The source code is available at https://github.com/xuyige/FGRL4KG.


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Uncertainty-Aware Label Refinement for Sequence Labeling
Tao Gui | Jiacheng Ye | Qi Zhang | Zhengyan Li | Zichu Fei | Yeyun Gong | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Conditional random fields (CRF) for label decoding has become ubiquitous in sequence labeling tasks. However, the local label dependencies and inefficient Viterbi decoding have always been a problem to be solved. In this work, we introduce a novel two-stage label decoding framework to model long-term label dependencies, while being much more computationally efficient. A base model first predicts draft labels, and then a novel two-stream self-attention model makes refinements on these draft predictions based on long-range label dependencies, which can achieve parallel decoding for a faster prediction. In addition, in order to mitigate the side effects of incorrect draft labels, Bayesian neural networks are used to indicate the labels with a high probability of being wrong, which can greatly assist in preventing error propagation. The experimental results on three sequence labeling benchmarks demonstrated that the proposed method not only outperformed the CRF-based methods but also greatly accelerated the inference process.