Jiahai Wang


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Disentangling Reasoning Capabilities from Language Models with Compositional Reasoning Transformers
Wanjun Zhong | Tingting Ma | Jiahai Wang | Jian Yin | Tiejun Zhao | Chin-Yew Lin | Nan Duan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

This paper presents ReasonFormer, a unified reasoning framework for mirroring the modular and compositional reasoning process of humans in complex decision-making. Inspired by dual-process theory in cognitive science, the representation module (automatic thinking) and reasoning modules (controlled thinking) are decoupled to capture different levels of cognition. Upon the top of the representation module, the pre-trained reasoning modules are modular and professional in specific and fundamental reasoning skills (e.g., logic, simple QA, etc). To mimic the controlled compositional thinking process, different reasoning modules are dynamically activated and composed in both parallel and cascaded manners to control what reasoning skills are activated and how deep the reasoning process will be reached to solve the current problems. The unified reasoning framework solves multiple tasks with a single model, and is trained and inferred in an end-to-end manner. Evaluated on 11 datasets requiring different reasoning skills and complexity, ReasonFormer demonstrates substantial performance boosts, revealing the compositional reasoning ability. Few-shot experiments exhibit better generalization ability by learning to compose pre-trained skills for new tasks with limited data, and decoupling the representation module and the reasoning modules. Further analysis shows the modularity of reasoning modules as different tasks activate distinct reasoning skills at different reasoning depths.

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Democratizing Reasoning Ability: Tailored Learning from Large Language Model
Zhaoyang Wang | Shaohan Huang | Yuxuan Liu | Jiahai Wang | Minghui Song | Zihan Zhang | Haizhen Huang | Furu Wei | Weiwei Deng | Feng Sun | Qi Zhang
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Large language models (LLMs) exhibit impressive emergent abilities in natural language processing, but their democratization is hindered due to huge computation requirements and closed-source nature. Recent research on advancing open-source smaller LMs by distilling knowledge from black-box LLMs has obtained promising results in the instruction-following ability. However, the reasoning ability which is more challenging to foster, is relatively rarely explored. In this paper, we propose a tailored learning approach to distill such reasoning ability to smaller LMs to facilitate the democratization of the exclusive reasoning ability. In contrast to merely employing LLM as a data annotator, we exploit the potential of LLM as a reasoning teacher by building an interactive multi-round learning paradigm. This paradigm enables the student to expose its deficiencies to the black-box teacher who then can provide customized training data in return. Further, to exploit the reasoning potential of the smaller LM, we propose self-reflection learning to motivate the student to learn from self-made mistakes. The learning from self-reflection and LLM are all tailored to the student’s learning status, thanks to the seamless integration with the multi-round learning paradigm. Comprehensive experiments and analysis on mathematical and commonsense reasoning tasks demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. The code will be available at https://github.com/Raibows/Learn-to-Reason.

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RMLM: A Flexible Defense Framework for Proactively Mitigating Word-level Adversarial Attacks
Zhaoyang Wang | Zhiyue Liu | Xiaopeng Zheng | Qinliang Su | Jiahai Wang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Adversarial attacks on deep neural networks keep raising security concerns in natural language processing research. Existing defenses focus on improving the robustness of the victim model in the training stage. However, they often neglect to proactively mitigate adversarial attacks during inference. Towards this overlooked aspect, we propose a defense framework that aims to mitigate attacks by confusing attackers and correcting adversarial contexts that are caused by malicious perturbations. Our framework comprises three components: (1) a synonym-based transformation to randomly corrupt adversarial contexts in the word level, (2) a developed BERT defender to correct abnormal contexts in the representation level, and (3) a simple detection method to filter out adversarial examples, any of which can be flexibly combined. Additionally, our framework helps improve the robustness of the victim model during training. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework in defending against word-level adversarial attacks.


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UECA-Prompt: Universal Prompt for Emotion Cause Analysis
Xiaopeng Zheng | Zhiyue Liu | Zizhen Zhang | Zhaoyang Wang | Jiahai Wang
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Emotion cause analysis (ECA) aims to extract emotion clauses and find the corresponding cause of the emotion. Existing methods adopt fine-tuning paradigm to solve certain types of ECA tasks. These task-specific methods have a deficiency of universality. And the relations among multiple objectives in one task are not explicitly modeled. Moreover, the relative position information introduced in most existing methods may make the model suffer from dataset bias. To address the first two problems, this paper proposes a universal prompt tuning method to solve different ECA tasks in the unified framework. As for the third problem, this paper designs a directional constraint module and a sequential learning module to ease the bias. Considering the commonalities among different tasks, this paper proposes a cross-task training method to further explore the capability of the model. The experimental results show that our method achieves competitive performance on the ECA datasets.

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Analytical Reasoning of Text
Wanjun Zhong | Siyuan Wang | Duyu Tang | Zenan Xu | Daya Guo | Yining Chen | Jiahai Wang | Jian Yin | Ming Zhou | Nan Duan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

Analytical reasoning is an essential and challenging task that requires a system to analyze a scenario involving a set of particular circumstances and perform reasoning over it to make conclusions. However, current neural models with implicit reasoning ability struggle to solve this task. In this paper, we study the challenge of analytical reasoning of text and collect a new dataset consisting of questions from the Law School Admission Test from 1991 to 2016. We analyze what knowledge understanding and reasoning abilities are required to do well on this task, and present an approach dubbed ARM. It extracts knowledge such as participants and facts from the context. Such knowledge are applied to an inference engine to deduce legitimate solutions for drawing conclusions. In our experiments, we find that ubiquitous pre-trained models struggle to deal with this task as their performance is close to random guess. Results show that ARM outperforms pre-trained models significantly. Moreover, we demonstrate that ARM has better explicit interpretable reasoning ability.

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ProQA: Structural Prompt-based Pre-training for Unified Question Answering
Wanjun Zhong | Yifan Gao | Ning Ding | Yujia Qin | Zhiyuan Liu | Ming Zhou | Jiahai Wang | Jian Yin | Nan Duan
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Question Answering (QA) is a longstanding challenge in natural language processing. Existing QA works mostly focus on specific question types, knowledge domains, or reasoning skills. The specialty in QA research hinders systems from modeling commonalities between tasks and generalization for wider applications. To address this issue, we present ProQA, a unified QA paradigm that solves various tasks through a single model. ProQA takes a unified structural prompt as the bridge and improves the QA-centric ability by structural prompt-based pre-training. Through a structurally designed prompt-based input schema, ProQA concurrently models the knowledge generalization for all QA tasks while keeping the knowledge customization for every specific QA task. Furthermore, ProQA is pre-trained with structural prompt-formatted large-scale synthesized corpus, which empowers the model with the commonly-required QA ability. Experimental results on 11 QA benchmarks demonstrate that ProQA consistently boosts performance on both full data fine-tuning, few-shot learning, and zero-shot testing scenarios. Furthermore, ProQA exhibits strong ability in both continual learning and transfer learning by taking the advantages of the structural prompt.


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UserAdapter: Few-Shot User Learning in Sentiment Analysis
Wanjun Zhong | Duyu Tang | Jiahai Wang | Jian Yin | Nan Duan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021


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LogicalFactChecker: Leveraging Logical Operations for Fact Checking with Graph Module Network
Wanjun Zhong | Duyu Tang | Zhangyin Feng | Nan Duan | Ming Zhou | Ming Gong | Linjun Shou | Daxin Jiang | Jiahai Wang | Jian Yin
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Verifying the correctness of a textual statement requires not only semantic reasoning about the meaning of words, but also symbolic reasoning about logical operations like count, superlative, aggregation, etc. In this work, we propose LogicalFactChecker, a neural network approach capable of leveraging logical operations for fact checking. It achieves the state-of-the-art performance on TABFACT, a large-scale, benchmark dataset built for verifying a textual statement with semi-structured tables. This is achieved by a graph module network built upon the Transformer-based architecture. With a textual statement and a table as the input, LogicalFactChecker automatically derives a program (a.k.a. logical form) of the statement in a semantic parsing manner. A heterogeneous graph is then constructed to capture not only the structures of the table and the program, but also the connections between inputs with different modalities. Such a graph reveals the related contexts of each word in the statement, the table and the program. The graph is used to obtain graph-enhanced contextual representations of words in Transformer-based architecture. After that, a program-driven module network is further introduced to exploit the hierarchical structure of the program, where semantic compositionality is dynamically modeled along the program structure with a set of function-specific modules. Ablation experiments suggest that both the heterogeneous graph and the module network are important to obtain strong results.

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Reasoning Over Semantic-Level Graph for Fact Checking
Wanjun Zhong | Jingjing Xu | Duyu Tang | Zenan Xu | Nan Duan | Ming Zhou | Jiahai Wang | Jian Yin
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Fact checking is a challenging task because verifying the truthfulness of a claim requires reasoning about multiple retrievable evidence. In this work, we present a method suitable for reasoning about the semantic-level structure of evidence. Unlike most previous works, which typically represent evidence sentences with either string concatenation or fusing the features of isolated evidence sentences, our approach operates on rich semantic structures of evidence obtained by semantic role labeling. We propose two mechanisms to exploit the structure of evidence while leveraging the advances of pre-trained models like BERT, GPT or XLNet. Specifically, using XLNet as the backbone, we first utilize the graph structure to re-define the relative distances of words, with the intuition that semantically related words should have short distances. Then, we adopt graph convolutional network and graph attention network to propagate and aggregate information from neighboring nodes on the graph. We evaluate our system on FEVER, a benchmark dataset for fact checking, and find that rich structural information is helpful and both our graph-based mechanisms improve the accuracy. Our model is the state-of-the-art system in terms of both official evaluation metrics, namely claim verification accuracy and FEVER score.

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Multi-choice Relational Reasoning for Machine Reading Comprehension
Wuya Chen | Xiaojun Quan | Chunyu Kit | Zhengcheng Min | Jiahai Wang
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

This paper presents our study of cloze-style reading comprehension by imitating human reading comprehension, which normally involves tactical comparing and reasoning over candidates while choosing the best answer. We propose a multi-choice relational reasoning (McR2) model with an aim to enable relational reasoning on candidates based on fusion representations of document, query and candidates. For the fusion representations, we develop an efficient encoding architecture by integrating the schemes of bidirectional attention flow, self-attention and document-gated query reading. Then, comparing and inferring over candidates are executed by a novel relational reasoning network. We conduct extensive experiments on four datasets derived from two public corpora, Children’s Book Test and Who DiD What, to verify the validity and advantages of our model. The results show that it outperforms all baseline models significantly on the four benchmark datasets. The effectiveness of its key components is also validated by an ablation study.

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Neural Deepfake Detection with Factual Structure of Text
Wanjun Zhong | Duyu Tang | Zenan Xu | Ruize Wang | Nan Duan | Ming Zhou | Jiahai Wang | Jian Yin
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Deepfake detection, the task of automatically discriminating machine-generated text, is increasingly critical with recent advances in natural language generative models. Existing approaches to deepfake detection typically represent documents with coarse-grained representations. However, they struggle to capture factual structures of documents, which is a discriminative factor between machine-generated and human-written text according to our statistical analysis. To address this, we propose a graph-based model that utilizes the factual structure of a document for deepfake detection of text. Our approach represents the factual structure of a given document as an entity graph, which is further utilized to learn sentence representations with a graph neural network. Sentence representations are then composed to a document representation for making predictions, where consistent relations between neighboring sentences are sequentially modeled. Results of experiments on two public deepfake datasets show that our approach significantly improves strong base models built with RoBERTa. Model analysis further indicates that our model can distinguish the difference in the factual structure between machine-generated text and human-written text.