Pre-trained language models have led to substantial gains over a broad range of natural language processing (NLP) tasks, but have been shown to have limitations for natural language generation tasks with high-quality requirements on the output, such as commonsense generation and ad keyword generation. In this work, we present a novel Knowledge Filtering and Contrastive learning Network (KFCNet) which references external knowledge and achieves better generation performance. Specifically, we propose a BERT-based filter model to remove low-quality candidates, and apply contrastive learning separately to each of the encoder and decoder, within a general encoder–decoder architecture. The encoder contrastive module helps to capture global target semantics during encoding, and the decoder contrastive module enhances the utility of retrieved prototypes while learning general features. Extensive experiments on the CommonGen benchmark show that our model outperforms the previous state of the art by a large margin: +6.6 points (42.5 vs. 35.9) for BLEU-4, +3.7 points (33.3 vs. 29.6) for SPICE, and +1.3 points (18.3 vs. 17.0) for CIDEr. We further verify the effectiveness of the proposed contrastive module on ad keyword generation, and show that our model has potential commercial value.
Transformer is an attention-based neural network, which consists of two sublayers, namely, Self-Attention Network (SAN) and Feed-Forward Network (FFN). Existing research explores to enhance the two sublayers separately to improve the capability of Transformer for text representation. In this paper, we present a novel understanding of SAN and FFN as Mask Attention Networks (MANs) and show that they are two special cases of MANs with static mask matrices. However, their static mask matrices limit the capability for localness modeling in text representation learning. We therefore introduce a new layer named dynamic mask attention network (DMAN) with a learnable mask matrix which is able to model localness adaptively. To incorporate advantages of DMAN, SAN, and FFN, we propose a sequential layered structure to combine the three types of layers. Extensive experiments on various tasks, including neural machine translation and text summarization demonstrate that our model outperforms the original Transformer.
This paper examines the challenging problem of learning representations of entities and relations in a complex multi-relational knowledge graph. We propose HittER, a Hierarchical Transformer model to jointly learn Entity-relation composition and Relational contextualization based on a source entity’s neighborhood. Our proposed model consists of two different Transformer blocks: the bottom block extracts features of each entity-relation pair in the local neighborhood of the source entity and the top block aggregates the relational information from outputs of the bottom block. We further design a masked entity prediction task to balance information from the relational context and the source entity itself. Experimental results show that HittER achieves new state-of-the-art results on multiple link prediction datasets. We additionally propose a simple approach to integrate HittER into BERT and demonstrate its effectiveness on two Freebase factoid question answering datasets.
Commonsense generation aims at generating plausible everyday scenario description based on a set of provided concepts. Digging the relationship of concepts from scratch is non-trivial, therefore, we retrieve prototypes from external knowledge to assist the understanding of the scenario for better description generation. We integrate two additional modules into the pretrained encoder-decoder model for prototype modeling to enhance the knowledge injection procedure. We conduct experiment on CommonGen benchmark, experimental results show that our method significantly improves the performance on all the metrics.