Implicit sentiment analysis, aiming at detecting the sentiment of a sentence without sentiment words, has become an attractive research topic in recent years. In this paper, we focus on event-centric implicit sentiment analysis that utilizes the sentiment-aware event contained in a sentence to infer its sentiment polarity. Most existing methods in implicit sentiment analysis simply view noun phrases or entities in text as events or indirectly model events with sophisticated models. Since events often trigger sentiments in sentences, we argue that this task would benefit from explicit modeling of events and event representation learning. To this end, we represent an event as the combination of its event type and the event triplet <subject, predicate, object>. Based on such event representation, we further propose a novel model with hierarchical tensor-based composition mechanism to detect sentiment in text. In addition, we present a dataset for event-centric implicit sentiment analysis where each sentence is labeled with the event representation described above. Experimental results on our constructed dataset and an existing benchmark dataset show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
User experience is essential for human-computer dialogue systems. However, it is impractical to ask users to provide explicit feedbacks when the agents’ responses displease them. Therefore, in this paper, we explore to predict users’ imminent dissatisfactions caused by intelligent agents by analysing the existing utterances in the dialogue sessions. To our knowledge, this is the first work focusing on this task. Several possible factors that trigger negative emotions are modelled. A relation sequence model (RSM) is proposed to encode the sequence of appropriateness of current response with respect to the earlier utterances. The experimental results show that the proposed structure is effective in modelling emotional risk (possibility of negative feedback) than existing conversation modelling approaches. Besides, strategies of obtaining distance supervision data for pre-training are also discussed in this work. Balanced sampling with respect to the last response in the distance supervision data are shown to be reliable for data augmentation.
For practical chatbots, one of the essential factor for improving user experience is the capability of customizing the talking style of the agents, that is, to make chatbots provide responses meeting users’ preference on language styles, topics, etc. To address this issue, this paper proposes to incorporate linguistic biases, which implicitly involved in the conversation corpora generated by human groups in the Social Network Services (SNS), into the encoder-decoder based response generator. By attaching a specially designed neural component to dynamically control the impact of linguistic biases in response generation, a Group Linguistic Bias Aware Neural Response Generation (GLBA-NRG) model is eventually presented. The experimental results on the dataset from the Chinese SNS show that the proposed architecture outperforms the current response generating models by producing both meaningful and vivid responses with customized styles.