Jianbing Zhang


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MixRED: A Mix-lingual Relation Extraction Dataset
Lingxing Kong | Yougang Chu | Zheng Ma | Jianbing Zhang | Liang He | Jiajun Chen
Proceedings of the 2024 Joint International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC-COLING 2024)

Relation extraction is a critical task in the field of natural language processing with numerous real-world applications. Existing research primarily focuses on monolingual relation extraction or cross-lingual enhancement for relation extraction. Yet, there remains a significant gap in understanding relation extraction in the mix-lingual (or code-switching) scenario, where individuals intermix contents from different languages within sentences, generating mix-lingual content. Due to the lack of a dedicated dataset, the effectiveness of existing relation extraction models in such a scenario is largely unexplored. To address this issue, we introduce a novel task of considering relation extraction in the mix-lingual scenario called MixRE and constructing the human-annotated dataset MixRED to support this task. In addition to constructing the MixRED dataset, we evaluate both state-of-the-art supervised models and large language models (LLMs) on MixRED, revealing their respective advantages and limitations in the mix-lingual scenario. Furthermore, we delve into factors influencing model performance within the MixRE task and uncover promising directions for enhancing the performance of both supervised models and LLMs in this novel task.


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M2DF: Multi-grained Multi-curriculum Denoising Framework for Multimodal Aspect-based Sentiment Analysis
Fei Zhao | Chunhui Li | Zhen Wu | Yawen Ouyang | Jianbing Zhang | Xinyu Dai
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Multimodal Aspect-based Sentiment Analysis (MABSA) is a fine-grained Sentiment Analysis task, which has attracted growing research interests recently. Existing work mainly utilizes image information to improve the performance of MABSA task. However, most of the studies overestimate the importance of images since there are many noise images unrelated to the text in the dataset, which will have a negative impact on model learning. Although some work attempts to filter low-quality noise images by setting thresholds, relying on thresholds will inevitably filter out a lot of useful image information. Therefore, in this work, we focus on whether the negative impact of noisy images can be reduced without modifying the data. To achieve this goal, we borrow the idea of Curriculum Learning and propose a Multi-grained Multi-curriculum Denoising Framework (M2DF), which can achieve denoising by adjusting the order of training data. Extensive experimental results show that our framework consistently outperforms state-of-the-art work on three sub-tasks of MABSA.

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Addressing Linguistic Bias through a Contrastive Analysis of Academic Writing in the NLP Domain
Robert Ridley | Zhen Wu | Jianbing Zhang | Shujian Huang | Xinyu Dai
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

It has been well documented that a reviewer’s opinion of the nativeness of expression in an academic paper affects the likelihood of it being accepted for publication. Previous works have also shone a light on the stress and anxiety authors who are non-native English speakers experience when attempting to publish in international venues. We explore how this might be a concern in the field of Natural Language Processing (NLP) through conducting a comprehensive statistical analysis of NLP paper abstracts, identifying how authors of different linguistic backgrounds differ in the lexical, morphological, syntactic and cohesive aspects of their writing. Through our analysis, we identify that there are a number of characteristics that are highly variable across the different corpora examined in this paper. This indicates potential for the presence of linguistic bias. Therefore, we outline a set of recommendations to publishers of academic journals and conferences regarding their guidelines and resources for prospective authors in order to help enhance inclusivity and fairness.

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On Prefix-tuning for Lightweight Out-of-distribution Detection
Yawen Ouyang | Yongchang Cao | Yuan Gao | Zhen Wu | Jianbing Zhang | Xinyu Dai
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Out-of-distribution (OOD) detection, a fundamental task vexing real-world applications, has attracted growing attention in the NLP community. Recently fine-tuning based methods have made promising progress. However, it could be costly to store fine-tuned models for each scenario. In this paper, we depart from the classic fine-tuning based OOD detection toward a parameter-efficient alternative, and propose an unsupervised prefix-tuning based OOD detection framework termed PTO. Additionally, to take advantage of optional training data labels and targeted OOD data, two practical extensions of PTO are further proposed. Overall, PTO and its extensions offer several key advantages of being lightweight, easy-to-reproduce, and theoretically justified. Experimental results show that our methods perform comparably to, even better than, existing fine-tuning based OOD detection approaches under a wide range of metrics, detection settings, and OOD types.

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Local Interpretation of Transformer Based on Linear Decomposition
Sen Yang | Shujian Huang | Wei Zou | Jianbing Zhang | Xinyu Dai | Jiajun Chen
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

In recent years, deep neural networks (DNNs) have achieved state-of-the-art performance on a wide range of tasks. However, limitations in interpretability have hindered their applications in the real world. This work proposes to interpret neural networks by linear decomposition and finds that the ReLU-activated Transformer can be considered as a linear model on a single input. We further leverage the linearity of the model and propose a linear decomposition of the model output to generate local explanations. Our evaluation of sentiment classification and machine translation shows that our method achieves competitive performance in efficiency and fidelity of explanation. In addition, we demonstrate the potential of our approach in applications with examples of error analysis on multiple tasks.


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Probing Cross-modal Semantics Alignment Capability from the Textual Perspective
Zheng Ma | Shi Zong | Mianzhi Pan | Jianbing Zhang | Shujian Huang | Xinyu Dai | Jiajun Chen
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

In recent years, vision and language pre-training (VLP) models have advanced the state-of-the-art results in a variety of cross-modal downstream tasks. Aligning cross-modal semantics is claimed to be one of the essential capabilities of VLP models. However, it still remains unclear about the inner working mechanism of alignment in VLP models. In this paper, we propose a new probing method that is based on image captioning to first empirically study the cross-modal semantics alignment of VLP models. Our probing method is built upon the fact that given an image-caption pair, the VLP models will give a score, indicating how well two modalities are aligned; maximizing such scores will generate sentences that VLP models believe are of good alignment. Analyzing these sentences thus will reveal in what way different modalities are aligned and how well these alignments are in VLP models. We apply our probing method to five popular VLP models, including UNITER, ROSITA, ViLBERT, CLIP, and LXMERT, and provide a comprehensive analysis of the generated captions guided by these models. Our results show that VLP models (1) focus more on just aligning objects with visual words, while neglecting global semantics; (2) prefer fixed sentence patterns, thus ignoring more important textual information including fluency and grammar; and (3) deem the captions with more visual words are better aligned with images. These findings indicate that VLP models still have weaknesses in cross-modal semantics alignment and we hope this work will draw researchers’ attention to such problems when designing a new VLP model.


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Learning Representation Mapping for Relation Detection in Knowledge Base Question Answering
Peng Wu | Shujian Huang | Rongxiang Weng | Zaixiang Zheng | Jianbing Zhang | Xiaohui Yan | Jiajun Chen
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Relation detection is a core step in many natural language process applications including knowledge base question answering. Previous efforts show that single-fact questions could be answered with high accuracy. However, one critical problem is that current approaches only get high accuracy for questions whose relations have been seen in the training data. But for unseen relations, the performance will drop rapidly. The main reason for this problem is that the representations for unseen relations are missing. In this paper, we propose a simple mapping method, named representation adapter, to learn the representation mapping for both seen and unseen relations based on previously learned relation embedding. We employ the adversarial objective and the reconstruction objective to improve the mapping performance. We re-organize the popular SimpleQuestion dataset to reveal and evaluate the problem of detecting unseen relations. Experiments show that our method can greatly improve the performance of unseen relations while the performance for those seen part is kept comparable to the state-of-the-art.