Jianhao Shen


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DT-Solver: Automated Theorem Proving with Dynamic-Tree Sampling Guided by Proof-level Value Function
Haiming Wang | Ye Yuan | Zhengying Liu | Jianhao Shen | Yichun Yin | Jing Xiong | Enze Xie | Han Shi | Yujun Li | Lin Li | Jian Yin | Zhenguo Li | Xiaodan Liang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Recent advances in neural theorem-proving resort to large language models and tree searches. When proving a theorem, a language model advises single-step actions based on the current proving state and the tree search finds a sequence of correct steps using actions given by the language model. However, prior works often conduct constant computation efforts for each proving state while ignoring that the hard states often need more exploration than easy states. Moreover, they evaluate and guide the proof search solely depending on the current proof state instead of considering the whole proof trajectory as human reasoning does. Here, to accommodate general theorems, we propose a novel Dynamic-Tree Driven Theorem Solver (DT-Solver) by guiding the search procedure with state confidence and proof-level values. Specifically, DT-Solver introduces a dynamic-tree Monte-Carlo search algorithm, which dynamically allocates computing budgets for different state confidences, guided by a new proof-level value function to discover proof states that require substantial exploration. Experiments on two popular theorem-proving datasets, PISA and Mathlib, show significant performance gains by our DT-Solver over the state-of-the-art approaches, with a 6.65% improvement on average in terms of success rate. And especially under low computing resource settings (11.03% improvement on average).

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ComSearch: Equation Searching with Combinatorial Strategy for Solving Math Word Problems with Weak Supervision
Qianying Liu | Wenyu Guan | Jianhao Shen | Fei Cheng | Sadao Kurohashi
Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Previous studies have introduced a weakly-supervised paradigm for solving math word problems requiring only the answer value annotation. While these methods search for correct value equation candidates as pseudo labels, they search among a narrow sub-space of the enormous equation space. To address this problem, we propose a novel search algorithm with combinatorial strategy ComSearch, which can compress the search space by excluding mathematically equivalent equations. The compression allows the searching algorithm to enumerate all possible equations and obtain high-quality data. We investigate the noise in the pseudo labels that hold wrong mathematical logic, which we refer to as the false-matching problem, and propose a ranking model to denoise the pseudo labels. Our approach holds a flexible framework to utilize two existing supervised math word problem solvers to train pseudo labels, and both achieve state-of-the-art performance in the weak supervision task.

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TRIGO: Benchmarking Formal Mathematical Proof Reduction for Generative Language Models
Jing Xiong | Jianhao Shen | Ye Yuan | Haiming Wang | Yichun Yin | Zhengying Liu | Lin Li | Zhijiang Guo | Qingxing Cao | Yinya Huang | Chuanyang Zheng | Xiaodan Liang | Ming Zhang | Qun Liu
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Automated theorem proving (ATP) has become an appealing domain for exploring the reasoning ability of the recent successful generative language models. However, current ATP benchmarks are mainly focus on symbolic inference, but rarely involve the understanding of complex number combination reasoning. In this work, we propose TRIGO, an ATP benchmark that not only requires a model to reduce a trigonometric expression with step-by-step proof but also evaluates a generative LM’s reasoning ability on formulas and capability to manipulate, group, and factor number terms. We gather trigonometric expressions and their reduced forms from web, annotate the simplification process manually, and translate it into the “Lean” formal language system. We then automatically generate additional examples from the annotated samples to expand the dataset. Furthermore, we also create three automatically generated training and testing datasets of varying difficulty and distributions. Our extensive experiments show our proposed TRIGO poses a new challenge for advanced generative LM’s including GPT-4 which is pre-trained on a considerable amount of open-source formal theorem-proving language data, and provide a new tool to study the generative LM’s ability on both formal and mathematical reasoning.


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Joint Language Semantic and Structure Embedding for Knowledge Graph Completion
Jianhao Shen | Chenguang Wang | Linyuan Gong | Dawn Song
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

The task of completing knowledge triplets has broad downstream applications. Both structural and semantic information plays an important role in knowledge graph completion. Unlike previous approaches that rely on either the structures or semantics of the knowledge graphs, we propose to jointly embed the semantics in the natural language description of the knowledge triplets with their structure information. Our method embeds knowledge graphs for the completion task via fine-tuning pre-trained language models with respect to a probabilistic structured loss, where the forward pass of the language models captures semantics and the loss reconstructs structures. Our extensive experiments on a variety of knowledge graph benchmarks have demonstrated the state-of-the-art performance of our method. We also show that our method can significantly improve the performance in a low-resource regime, thanks to the better use of semantics. The code and datasets are available at https://github.com/pkusjh/LASS.

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PALT: Parameter-Lite Transfer of Language Models for Knowledge Graph Completion
Jianhao Shen | Chenguang Wang | Ye Yuan | Jiawei Han | Heng Ji | Koushik Sen | Ming Zhang | Dawn Song
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

This paper presents a parameter-lite transfer learning approach of pretrained language models (LM) for knowledge graph (KG) completion. Instead of finetuning, which modifies all LM parameters, we only tune a few new parameters while keeping the original LM parameters fixed. We establish this via reformulating KG completion as a “fill-in-the-blank” task, and introducing a parameter-lite encoder on top of the original LMs. We show that, by tuning far fewer parameters than finetuning, LMs transfer non-trivially to most tasks and reach competitiveness with prior state-of-the-art approaches. For instance, we outperform the fully finetuning approaches on a KG completion benchmark by tuning only 1% of the parameters.


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Generate & Rank: A Multi-task Framework for Math Word Problems
Jianhao Shen | Yichun Yin | Lin Li | Lifeng Shang | Xin Jiang | Ming Zhang | Qun Liu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Math word problem (MWP) is a challenging and critical task in natural language processing. Many recent studies formalize MWP as a generation task and have adopted sequence-to-sequence models to transform problem descriptions to mathematical expressions. However, mathematical expressions are prone to minor mistakes while the generation objective does not explicitly handle such mistakes. To address this limitation, we devise a new ranking task for MWP and propose Generate & Rank, a multi-task framework based on a generative pre-trained language model. By joint training with generation and ranking, the model learns from its own mistakes and is able to distinguish between correct and incorrect expressions. Meanwhile, we perform tree-based disturbance specially designed for MWP and an online update to boost the ranker. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method on the benchmark and the results show that our method consistently outperforms baselines in all datasets. Particularly, in the classical Math23k, our method is 7% (78.4% to 85.4%) higher than the state-of-the-art. Code could be found at https://github.com/huawei-noah/noah-research.