Jianing Zhou


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Non-compositional Expression Generation Based on Curriculum Learning and Continual Learning
Jianing Zhou | Ziheng Zeng | Hongyu Gong | Suma Bhat
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Non-compositional expressions, by virtue of their non-compositionality, are a classic ‘pain in the neck’ for NLP systems. Different from the general language modeling and generation tasks that are primarily compositional, generating non-compositional expressions is more challenging for current neural models, including large pre-trained language models. The main reasons are 1) their non-compositionality, and 2) the limited data resources. Therefore, to make the best use of available data for modeling non-compositionality, we propose a dynamic curriculum learning framework, which learns training examples from easy ones to harder ones thus optimizing the learning step by step but suffers from the forgetting problem. To alleviate the forgetting problem brought by the arrangement of training examples, we also apply a continual learning method into our curriculum learning framework. Our proposed method combined curriculum and continual learning, to gradually improve the model’s performance on the task of non-compositional expression generation. Experiments on idiomatic expression generation and metaphor generation affirm the effectiveness of our proposed curriculum learning framework and the application of continual learning. Our codes are available at https://github.com/zhjjn/CL2Gen.git.

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IEKG: A Commonsense Knowledge Graph for Idiomatic Expressions
Ziheng Zeng | Kellen Cheng | Srihari Nanniyur | Jianing Zhou | Suma Bhat
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Idiomatic expression (IE) processing and comprehension have challenged pre-trained language models (PTLMs) because their meanings are non-compositional. Unlike prior works that enable IE comprehension through fine-tuning PTLMs with sentences containing IEs, in this work, we construct IEKG, a commonsense knowledge graph for figurative interpretations of IEs. This extends the established ATOMIC2020 converting PTLMs into knowledge models (KMs) that encode and infer commonsense knowledge related to IE use. Experiments show that various PTLMs can be converted into KMs with IEKG. We verify the quality of IEKG and the ability of the trained KMs with automatic and human evaluation. Through applications in natural language understanding, we show that a PTLM injected with knowledge from IEKG exhibits improved IE comprehension ability and can generalize to IEs unseen during training.

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CLCL: Non-compositional Expression Detection with Contrastive Learning and Curriculum Learning
Jianing Zhou | Ziheng Zeng | Suma Bhat
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Non-compositional expressions present a substantial challenge for natural language processing (NLP) systems, necessitating more intricate processing compared to general language tasks, even with large pre-trained language models. Their non-compositional nature and limited availability of data resources further compound the difficulties in accurately learning their representations. This paper addresses both of these challenges. By leveraging contrastive learning techniques to build improved representations it tackles the non-compositionality challenge. Additionally, we propose a dynamic curriculum learning framework specifically designed to take advantage of the scarce available data for modeling non-compositionality. Our framework employs an easy-to-hard learning strategy, progressively optimizing the model’s performance by effectively utilizing available training data. Moreover, we integrate contrastive learning into the curriculum learning approach to maximize its benefits. Experimental results demonstrate the gradual improvement in the model’s performance on idiom usage recognition and metaphor detection tasks. Our evaluation encompasses six datasets, consistently affirming the effectiveness of the proposed framework. Our models available at https://github.com/zhjjn/CLCL.git.


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Automatic Patient Note Assessment without Strong Supervision
Jianing Zhou | Vyom Nayan Thakkar | Rachel Yudkowsky | Suma Bhat | William F. Bond
Proceedings of the 13th International Workshop on Health Text Mining and Information Analysis (LOUHI)

Training of physicians requires significant practice writing patient notes that document the patient’s medical and health information and physician diagnostic reasoning. Assessment and feedback of the patient note requires experienced faculty, consumes significant amounts of time and delays feedback to learners. Grading patient notes is thus a tedious and expensive process for humans that could be improved with the addition of natural language processing. However, the large manual effort required to create labeled datasets increases the challenge, particularly when test cases change. Therefore, traditional supervised NLP methods relying on labelled datasets are impractical in such a low-resource scenario. In our work, we proposed an unsupervised framework as a simple baseline and a weakly supervised method utilizing transfer learning for automatic assessment of patient notes under a low-resource scenario. Experiments on our self-collected datasets show that our weakly-supervised methods could provide reliable assessment for patient notes with accuracy of 0.92.


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PIE: A Parallel Idiomatic Expression Corpus for Idiomatic Sentence Generation and Paraphrasing
Jianing Zhou | Hongyu Gong | Suma Bhat
Proceedings of the 17th Workshop on Multiword Expressions (MWE 2021)

Idiomatic expressions (IE) play an important role in natural language, and have long been a “pain in the neck” for NLP systems. Despite this, text generation tasks related to IEs remain largely under-explored. In this paper, we propose two new tasks of idiomatic sentence generation and paraphrasing to fill this research gap. We introduce a curated dataset of 823 IEs, and a parallel corpus with sentences containing them and the same sentences where the IEs were replaced by their literal paraphrases as the primary resource for our tasks. We benchmark existing deep learning models, which have state-of-the-art performance on related tasks using automated and manual evaluation with our dataset to inspire further research on our proposed tasks. By establishing baseline models, we pave the way for more comprehensive and accurate modeling of IEs, both for generation and paraphrasing.

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Paraphrase Generation: A Survey of the State of the Art
Jianing Zhou | Suma Bhat
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

This paper focuses on paraphrase generation,which is a widely studied natural language generation task in NLP. With the development of neural models, paraphrase generation research has exhibited a gradual shift to neural methods in the recent years. This has provided architectures for contextualized representation of an input text and generating fluent, diverseand human-like paraphrases. This paper surveys various approaches to paraphrase generation with a main focus on neural methods.


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Multiple Character Embeddings for Chinese Word Segmentation
Jianing Zhou | Jingkang Wang | Gongshen Liu
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop

Chinese word segmentation (CWS) is often regarded as a character-based sequence labeling task in most current works which have achieved great success with the help of powerful neural networks. However, these works neglect an important clue: Chinese characters incorporate both semantic and phonetic meanings. In this paper, we introduce multiple character embeddings including Pinyin Romanization and Wubi Input, both of which are easily accessible and effective in depicting semantics of characters. We propose a novel shared Bi-LSTM-CRF model to fuse linguistic features efficiently by sharing the LSTM network during the training procedure. Extensive experiments on five corpora show that extra embeddings help obtain a significant improvement in labeling accuracy. Specifically, we achieve the state-of-the-art performance in AS and CityU corpora with F1 scores of 96.9 and 97.3, respectively without leveraging any external lexical resources.