Jiao Sun


2022

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On Measures of Biases and Harms in NLP
Sunipa Dev | Emily Sheng | Jieyu Zhao | Aubrie Amstutz | Jiao Sun | Yu Hou | Mattie Sanseverino | Jiin Kim | Akihiro Nishi | Nanyun Peng | Kai-Wei Chang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: AACL-IJCNLP 2022

Recent studies show that Natural Language Processing (NLP) technologies propagate societal biases about demographic groups associated with attributes such as gender, race, and nationality. To create interventions and mitigate these biases and associated harms, it is vital to be able to detect and measure such biases. While existing works propose bias evaluation and mitigation methods for various tasks, there remains a need to cohesively understand the biases and the specific harms they measure, and how different measures compare with each other. To address this gap, this work presents a practical framework of harms and a series of questions that practitioners can answer to guide the development of bias measures. As a validation of our framework and documentation questions, we also present several case studies of how existing bias measures in NLP—both intrinsic measures of bias in representations and extrinsic measures of bias of downstream applications—can be aligned with different harms and how our proposed documentation questions facilitates more holistic understanding of what bias measures are measuring.

2021

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EventPlus: A Temporal Event Understanding Pipeline
Mingyu Derek Ma | Jiao Sun | Mu Yang | Kung-Hsiang Huang | Nuan Wen | Shikhar Singh | Rujun Han | Nanyun Peng
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies: Demonstrations

We present EventPlus, a temporal event understanding pipeline that integrates various state-of-the-art event understanding components including event trigger and type detection, event argument detection, event duration and temporal relation extraction. Event information, especially event temporal knowledge, is a type of common sense knowledge that helps people understand how stories evolve and provides predictive hints for future events. EventPlus as the first comprehensive temporal event understanding pipeline provides a convenient tool for users to quickly obtain annotations about events and their temporal information for any user-provided document. Furthermore, we show EventPlus can be easily adapted to other domains (e.g., biomedical domain). We make EventPlus publicly available to facilitate event-related information extraction and downstream applications.

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AESOP: Paraphrase Generation with Adaptive Syntactic Control
Jiao Sun | Xuezhe Ma | Nanyun Peng
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We propose to control paraphrase generation through carefully chosen target syntactic structures to generate more proper and higher quality paraphrases. Our model, AESOP, leverages a pretrained language model and adds deliberately chosen syntactical control via a retrieval-based selection module to generate fluent paraphrases. Experiments show that AESOP achieves state-of-the-art performances on semantic preservation and syntactic conformation on two benchmark datasets with ground-truth syntactic control from human-annotated exemplars. Moreover, with the retrieval-based target syntax selection module, AESOP generates paraphrases with even better qualities than the current best model using human-annotated target syntactic parses according to human evaluation. We further demonstrate the effectiveness of AESOP to improve classification models’ robustness to syntactic perturbation by data augmentation on two GLUE tasks.

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ESTER: A Machine Reading Comprehension Dataset for Reasoning about Event Semantic Relations
Rujun Han | I-Hung Hsu | Jiao Sun | Julia Baylon | Qiang Ning | Dan Roth | Nanyun Peng
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Understanding how events are semantically related to each other is the essence of reading comprehension. Recent event-centric reading comprehension datasets focus mostly on event arguments or temporal relations. While these tasks partially evaluate machines’ ability of narrative understanding, human-like reading comprehension requires the capability to process event-based information beyond arguments and temporal reasoning. For example, to understand causality between events, we need to infer motivation or purpose; to establish event hierarchy, we need to understand the composition of events. To facilitate these tasks, we introduce **ESTER**, a comprehensive machine reading comprehension (MRC) dataset for Event Semantic Relation Reasoning. The dataset leverages natural language queries to reason about the five most common event semantic relations, provides more than 6K questions, and captures 10.1K event relation pairs. Experimental results show that the current SOTA systems achieve 22.1%, 63.3% and 83.5% for token-based exact-match (**EM**), **F1** and event-based **HIT@1** scores, which are all significantly below human performances (36.0%, 79.6%, 100% respectively), highlighting our dataset as a challenging benchmark.

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Men Are Elected, Women Are Married: Events Gender Bias on Wikipedia
Jiao Sun | Nanyun Peng
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Human activities can be seen as sequences of events, which are crucial to understanding societies. Disproportional event distribution for different demographic groups can manifest and amplify social stereotypes, and potentially jeopardize the ability of members in some groups to pursue certain goals. In this paper, we present the first event-centric study of gender biases in a Wikipedia corpus. To facilitate the study, we curate a corpus of career and personal life descriptions with demographic information consisting of 7,854 fragments from 10,412 celebrities. Then we detect events with a state-of-the-art event detection model, calibrate the results using strategically generated templates, and extract events that have asymmetric associations with genders. Our study discovers that the Wikipedia pages tend to intermingle personal life events with professional events for females but not for males, which calls for the awareness of the Wikipedia community to formalize guidelines and train the editors to mind the implicit biases that contributors carry. Our work also lays the foundation for future works on quantifying and discovering event biases at the corpus level.