Jiaqing Liang


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Adaptive Ordered Information Extraction with Deep Reinforcement Learning
Wenhao Huang | Jiaqing Liang | Zhixu Li | Yanghua Xiao | Chuanjun Ji
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Information extraction (IE) has been studied extensively. The existing methods always follow a fixed extraction order for complex IE tasks with multiple elements to be extracted in one instance such as event extraction. However, we conduct experiments on several complex IE datasets and observe that different extraction orders can significantly affect the extraction results for a great portion of instances, and the ratio of sentences that are sensitive to extraction orders increases dramatically with the complexity of the IE task. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel adaptive ordered IE paradigm to find the optimal element extraction order for different instances, so as to achieve the best extraction results. We also propose an reinforcement learning (RL) based framework to generate optimal extraction order for each instance dynamically. Additionally, we propose a co-training framework adapted to RL to mitigate the exposure bias during the extractor training phase. Extensive experiments conducted on several public datasets demonstrate that our proposed method can beat previous methods and effectively improve the performance of various IE tasks, especially for complex ones.

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Causality-aware Concept Extraction based on Knowledge-guided Prompting
Siyu Yuan | Deqing Yang | Jinxi Liu | Shuyu Tian | Jiaqing Liang | Yanghua Xiao | Rui Xie
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Concepts benefit natural language understanding but are far from complete in existing knowledge graphs (KGs). Recently, pre-trained language models (PLMs) have been widely used in text-based concept extraction (CE). However, PLMs tend to mine the co-occurrence associations from massive corpus as pre-trained knowledge rather than the real causal effect between tokens. As a result, the pre-trained knowledge confounds PLMs to extract biased concepts based on spurious co-occurrence correlations, inevitably resulting in low precision. In this paper, through the lens of a Structural Causal Model (SCM), we propose equipping the PLM-based extractor with a knowledge-guided prompt as an intervention to alleviate concept bias. The prompt adopts the topic of the given entity from the existing knowledge in KGs to mitigate the spurious co-occurrence correlations between entities and biased concepts. Our extensive experiments on representative multilingual KG datasets justify that our proposed prompt can effectively alleviate concept bias and improve the performance of PLM-based CE models.

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HAUSER: Towards Holistic and Automatic Evaluation of Simile Generation
Qianyu He | Yikai Zhang | Jiaqing Liang | Yuncheng Huang | Yanghua Xiao | Yunwen Chen
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Similes play an imperative role in creative writing such as story and dialogue generation. Proper evaluation metrics are like a beacon guiding the research of simile generation (SG). However, it remains under-explored as to what criteria should be considered, how to quantify each criterion into metrics, and whether the metrics are effective for comprehensive, efficient, and reliable SG evaluation. To address the issues, we establish HAUSER, a holistic and automatic evaluation system for the SG task, which consists of five criteria from three perspectives and automatic metrics for each criterion. Through extensive experiments, we verify that our metrics are significantly more correlated with human ratings from each perspective compared with prior automatic metrics. Resources of HAUSER are publicly available at https://github.com/Abbey4799/HAUSER.


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Generative Entity Typing with Curriculum Learning
Siyu Yuan | Deqing Yang | Jiaqing Liang | Zhixu Li | Jinxi Liu | Jingyue Huang | Yanghua Xiao
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Entity typing aims to assign types to the entity mentions in given texts. The traditional classification-based entity typing paradigm has two unignorable drawbacks: 1) it fails to assign an entity to the types beyond the predefined type set, and 2) it can hardly handle few-shot and zero-shot situations where many long-tail types only have few or even no training instances. To overcome these drawbacks, we propose a novel generative entity typing (GET) paradigm: given a text with an entity mention, the multiple types for the role that the entity plays in the text are generated with a pre-trained language model (PLM). However, PLMs tend to generate coarse-grained types after fine-tuning upon the entity typing dataset. In addition, only the heterogeneous training data consisting of a small portion of human-annotated data and a large portion of auto-generated but low-quality data are provided for model training. To tackle these problems, we employ curriculum learning (CL) to train our GET model on heterogeneous data, where the curriculum could be self-adjusted with the self-paced learning according to its comprehension of the type granularity and data heterogeneity. Our extensive experiments upon the datasets of different languages and downstream tasks justify the superiority of our GET model over the state-of-the-art entity typing models. The code has been released on https://github.com/siyuyuan/GET.


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HacRED: A Large-Scale Relation Extraction Dataset Toward Hard Cases in Practical Applications
Qiao Cheng | Juntao Liu | Xiaoye Qu | Jin Zhao | Jiaqing Liang | Zhefeng Wang | Baoxing Huai | Nicholas Jing Yuan | Yanghua Xiao
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

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Revisiting the Negative Data of Distantly Supervised Relation Extraction
Chenhao Xie | Jiaqing Liang | Jingping Liu | Chengsong Huang | Wenhao Huang | Yanghua Xiao
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Distantly supervision automatically generates plenty of training samples for relation extraction. However, it also incurs two major problems: noisy labels and imbalanced training data. Previous works focus more on reducing wrongly labeled relations (false positives) while few explore the missing relations that are caused by incompleteness of knowledge base (false negatives). Furthermore, the quantity of negative labels overwhelmingly surpasses the positive ones in previous problem formulations. In this paper, we first provide a thorough analysis of the above challenges caused by negative data. Next, we formulate the problem of relation extraction into as a positive unlabeled learning task to alleviate false negative problem. Thirdly, we propose a pipeline approach, dubbed ReRe, that first performs sentence classification with relational labels and then extracts the subjects/objects. Experimental results show that the proposed method consistently outperforms existing approaches and remains excellent performance even learned with a large quantity of false positive samples. Source code is available online at https://github.com/redreamality/RERE-relation-extraction.